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DRINK . •. TO . •. DEVELOP . : THE 
AND STRENGTH. . •. .-. .-. .♦. 


Copyright, 1901, by Bernarr Macfadden 




29-33 E. 19th Street, 
New York, U. S. A. 



12 and 13 Red Lion Court, Fleet St. 
London, England 


The beauty and glory 0/ superb physical health 
are within the reach 0/ all who are willing to strive 
for such glorious reward. 

■ ■ 



Man is what foods make him. 
Eat to enjoy > not merely to fill your stomach. 
i( Tell me what you eat, and I will tell you what 
you are." — Prof. L. H Anderson. 

Some " Eat to live"; others "Live to eat" but 
if you so live that the highest and most intense en- 
joyment can be secured from eating that superb 
health which at times thrills every nerve with sur- 
plus power will be your ever-present possession. 



Appetite 10 

Mastication 22 

Process of Digestion 33 

Air 39 

Water 46 

Overeating 51 

Three-Meal Plan 62 

Two-Meal Plan 66 

One-Meal Plan 70 

Meat, or Mixed Diet j$ 

Vegetables 78 

Raw Diet 82 

Cooking of Foods 89 

Health Foods 94 

Food and Occupation 98 

Food and Temperature 104 



Alcoholic Liquors 108 

Drinking at Meals 1 19 

Ice Water 122 

Coffee and Tea „ 123 

The White-Bread Curse 133 

Elements of Foods 144 

Muscle-Making Elements 147 

Fattening Elements 152 

Mineral Elements 4 154 

Wheat and Wheat Preparations 158 

Oats and Other Grains 161 

Vegetables 166 

Dairy Products 172 

Fruits, Berries, etc 176 

Meats 182 

Nuts 186 

Fish 191 


Strength ! How we all yearn for this grand 

No matter how much strength may be pos- 
sessed one always desires more. It is like 
money. You can never secure enough. No 
matter what may be your desires or ambitions ; 
no matter what may be your occupation, 
strength is an actual necessity in order to ac- 
complish anything of value in life. 

From as far back as history dates the tend- 
ency of humanity to worship strength is 
noted. This inclination has not decreased to 
any extent even to-day. We all love and ad- 
mire strength. Our heroes are all strong. We 
like to imagine them with all the vigor and 
beauty of body which every perfect human be- 
ing should possess. 


The normal condition of every human body 
is one of strength. Every infant which has 
vitality enough to be born and live, has suffi- 
cient vitality to grow into a vigorous man or 
woman. Where it is otherwise, the weakness 
and disease have been caused by unnatural con- 
ditions. In every case weakness is brought 
about by failing to observe the laws of nature, 
which demand the use of every part of the 
muscular organism, and a regular supply of 
nourishing foods. 

Though the building of any great degree of 
strength is impossible without using it regu- 
larly as acquired, the influence of diet 
is very great. It requires but little intelli- 
gence for one to understand how greatly foods 
can influence the condition of the body. In 
order to build strength you must have strength- 
ening and nourishing foods, and these 
foods must be eaten as nature demands; 
otherwise there is but little possibility of 
one gaining the desired physical power and 

Reader, have you sufficient strength? Have 


you all the beauty and vigor of body that you 
desire? If not, it is plainly and clearly within 
your reach. It is simply required of you that 
you make determined efforts to bring about 
this natural condition of the body. 

I have endeavored in this book to teach 
some plain truths : I have endeavored to em- 
phasize with all possible accuracy the plain laws 
of nature in reference to eating and drinking, 
for the attainment of the highest degree of 
health and strength. 

Read and form your own conclusions. 

Strength can be yours. 

Let your determination be strong, and your 
perseverance unabating, and the suppleness 
beauty and buoyancy of strength will appear 
as your reward in every instance. 



The Puritanical theory that all pleasures 
were evil in character, has probably done much 
to assist the human race towards the " mire " 
of physical degeneracy. There is no natural 
pleasure, or natural appetite, or natural desire 
that was not created for a particular health- 
giving purpose, the following of which will 
add strength to the body ; and the sin, the evil, 
lies not in commission but in omission. Culti- 
vate Nature, natural appetites, natural desires; 
develop that delicacy of intuition which will 
enable you to interpret and follow their dic- 
tates as nearly as it lies in your power, and 
you will be a stronger and nobler specimen of 
manhood or womanhood because of this. 

" Taste has been considered the lowest, in 
usefulness, of all the senses. On the contrary, 
if properly understood, taste is the most im- 
portant of all the faculties man possesses. Upon 


an examination, that anyone can make for 
himself, it is revealed that taste is the faithful 
sentinel of the stomach, of the tissues and of 
the brain, whose guidance and warning, if 
heeded, will give hertofore unknown enjoy- 
ment to eating, and at the same time insure 
perfect health and the maximum of strength." 
— Horace Fletcher. 

How many human beings eat their meals 
because it is meal time! They have no desire 
for food, absolutely no appetite, but they feel 
that it is their duty to eat. 

Poor fools! 

Duty, indeed! Why, friends, every mouth- 
ful of food swallowed without appetite is an 
outrage committed against tl?e stomach: an 
outrage so fearful that every organ of the 
body is dulled and deadened by it. And those 
very persons who abuse themselves in this way 
are often the loudest in their condemnations 
of intemperance-alcoholic intemperance. 

If the real facts were known, these sinners 
against the appetite, against the stomach, are 
the victims of an intemperance that is far more 


destructive in its character than those who in- 
dulge in alcoholic liquors. 

There are occasions even when an alcohol 
fiend enjoys an exaltation of spirits which is 
the semblance of the exhilaration that often 
comes to those in a high degree of physical 
health, but the person who performs his 
" duty " of eating three times per day, 
" whether he needs it or not/' year after year, 
never, on any occasion, has his pulse quick- 
ened by such an influence. Every organ of his 
body usually loses its acute power of sensa- 
tion to a similar degree with the stomach. This 
poor, abused organ is compelled to work 
against its will continually. Never at any 
time, under these circumstances, is it prepared 
to digest the " mess " that is dumped into it. 
Can you blame this organ for failing in its 
duty? Can you blame it if the food gives no 
strength ? You may eat and eat, try every con- 
ceivable tonic on earth, go from one physician 
to another searching for a remedy to cure your 
trouble under such circumstances and your ef- 
forts will be of no avail. 


If one would use his brains a trifle, and obey 
the natural instincts of his body, as does the 
dog and all other lower animals, the stomach 
would be allowed to rest until it cries out for 
the privilege of working. Then it is ready to 
work, to digest. It has all the digestive juices 
prepared in advance and the food is attacked 
by these juices immediately upon its entrance 
to the stomach, and is quickly dissolved, or 
reduced to that condition necessary for its ab- 
sorption by the various glands with which it 
comes in contact during passage through the 
alimentary canal. The existence of an appetite 
for food indicates not only that the food is 
needed by the body, but also that the digestive 
organs are ready to receive it. 

It is the enjoyment of food, " eating with 
appetite," which makes the salivary glands, 
and the glands that furnish the gastric and 
other digestive juices, pour forth their liquids 
in copious quantities. Under no other circum- 
stances are these digestive liquids, necessary 
to proper digestion, furnished in the proper 
quantities or in proper strength. Therefore 


any one can clearly see the terrible sin of eat- 
ing without appetite. The food is washed down 
into the stomach by coffee and other abomin- 
able liquids, and, in a haphazard way, the 
stomach may try to digest it. But there is no 
" vim "' to its efforts. It is a grim duty per- 
formed against protest. Should one wonder 
that he suffers from indigestion under such 
circumstances? With all this " mess " of food 
fermenting, and sometimes actually putrefy- 
ing in the stomach, how could it be otherwise ? 
And some persons have the incomprehensible 
audacity to wonder why their breath is foul! 
When the contents of the stomach are in this 
condition, the whole system is actually pois- 
oned — not only the breath, but the perspira- 
tion and every emanation from the body will 
have an unpleasant odor This foulness is 
taken up by the blood in its effort towards 
elimination — it is therefore distributed every- 
where, throughout the entire body, and under 
such circumstances it is really marvelous how 
the body can continue to manifest life when 


the conditions that create this filth are con- 
tinued year after year. 

Eating without appetite is actually the only 
cause for the depraved physical condition de- 
scribed above. There can be no other cause. 
Food cannot lie in the stomach undigested if 
the stomach is first prepared for it by appetite 
and the enjoyment that it gives to the process 
of eating. 

Let me emphasize with all possible clearness 
that in eating for the acquirement of the high- 
est degree of vigorous health, the necessity for 
obeying the dictates of the appetite must be 
recognized to the fullest extent. 

The appetite is absolutely the only guide 
as to quantity and character of food needed to 
nourish the body at different times, and if the 
delicate sensibility of this guide has been dulled 
and deadened by failure to acknowledge and 
follow its dictates, by crowding the stomach 
with food against the natural inclination just 
because it is meal time, the only indication that 
sufficient food has been eaten will be that the 
stomach can hold no more, and there will be 


no natural craving to indicate the particular 
character of food especially required to nour- 
ish the body at that time. 

The unperverted appetite always craves 
most keenly that particular food element that 
is most needed by the system to nourish the 
body. Therefore, if the appetite is in a nor- 
mal condition, the food that tastes the best will 
be that which is richest in the nourishment 
mostly needed. 

" Taste, in its normal condition, when al- 
lowed to direct or advise, craves the kind of 
nourishment the body needs, invites to eating, 
gives enjoyment during the whole time needed 
for the fluids of the mouth to do their part of 
the assimilating process, ceases when the food 
is ready for the stomach, and thereafter fails 
to recognize the indigestible sediment which 
remains in the mouth after nutriment has 
been extracted; and, in these services, if con- 
sulted and obeyed, prevents indigestible matter 
from entering the system to burden and clog 
the lower intestines. 

'* Appetite and taste are the sense functions 


that are most important to health, and hence, 
are the most important to study and under- 
stand. They are the guide in nutrition and the 
guard of the body. 

" Taste is also dependent on supply of the 
mouth juices, usually called saliva, and these 
differ materially in individuals, necessitating 
self-study, self-understanding and self-care to 
insure prevention of disease. Whatever does 
not taste, such as glass or stone, is not nutri- 
tious. The juices of the mouth have the power 
to transform anything that excites taste into a 
substance suitable for the body. If we swal- 
low only the food which excites the sense of 
taste, and swallow it only after the taste has 
been extracted from it, removing from the 
mouth the tasteless residue, complete and easy 
digestion will be assured and perfect health 
maintained/ ' — Horace Fletcher, 

Of course the needs of the body vary greatly 
at different periods. At one time one might 
especially crave an article of food that would 
not be at all appetizing on another occasion. 
This accounts, in a measure, for one becoming 


tired of any special article of food when eaten 
too frequently. The body is surfeited with the 
elements of nourishment which it contains, 
and hence all desire for it disappears. And, 
again, it will be noticed that those foods, like 
whole wheat bread, which contains all the ele- 
ments needed to feed the body in almost perfect 
proportions, can be eaten with relish at nearly 
all times when an appetite for anything ex- 

But the reader may ask, " How am I to 
know if my appetite is normal or abnormal ? " 
About the only condition that can be depended 
on absolutely to indicate as to whether or not 
one is living according to the dictates of the 
normal appetite, is the enjoyment of that high 
degree of health which makes every moment 
in life seem full of joy from the very exuber- 
ance of one's own feelings. This condition, one 
and all will easily admit, is rarely met with to- 
day, and it indicates quite clearly the usual ab- 
normal state of civilized human beings. 

The question will now naturally arise if the 


appetite is abnormal, how can it be made nor- 

There is but one way of creating a normal 
appetite and that is by fasting. One must fast 
until he has a clear unmistakable craving for 
food, then the instinct will have no difficulty 
in selecting those foods most needed, if a 
choice of wholesome and nutritious foods are 
given. As to the length of time one should 
fast in order to bring about these results it will 
of course depend entirely on the physical con- 
dition. If the appetite has been outraged in 
the usual way, year after year, and no atten- 
tion has been given to the necessity for physi- 
cal exercise, it would no doubt take a fast of 
several weeks to bring about an absolutely nor- 
mal condition. I am fully aware that there 
are but few of my readers who would dare 
attempt a fast of such duration, and, in fact, 
practically the same results can be achieved 
without resorting to such extremes, though 
these results will of course not appear so speed- 
ily as they would if a total fast could be en- 


Begin this body-cleansing, appetite-creating 
process by missing one meal (breakfast) per 

After having followed this for a while, miss 
two meals per day, breakfast and the noon 
meal, or, else, breakfast and the evening meal. 
This method will enable you to feel your way, 
step by step. After having gone without 
breakfast for several days, and the benefits of 
this have become plainly evident, you will be 
better prepared for the abstinence required in 
subsisting on only one meal per day. 

The benefits that result from fasting are un- 
questionably greatly lessened if the confidence 
in its efficiency is not sufficiently strong, and 
this graduated process of teaching its advan- 
tages can be commended to those who are open 
to conviction, but who do not feel equal to a 
prolonged fast. 



Digestion begins in the mouth. The thor- 
ough chewing and mixing of the food with 
saliva is, consequently, one of the principle and 
important factors in digestion. All foods in 
a natural state require a great deal of chew- 
ing before they can be swallowed, but the va- 
rious methods of preparing food, by which it 
is moistened and softened, usually enables one 
to swallow it with but little chewing. It there- 
fore behooves us to remember this prime ne- 
necessity for thorough mastication, no matter 
how soft the food may be. Even soups must 
be submitted to a certain amount of this chew- 
ing process, that the saliva may be thoroughly 
mixed with it before it is swallowed. Food is 
not in a fit condition to enter the stomach un- 
less it is first thoroughly masticated and mixed 
with saliva. The necessity for this is almost 
universally ignored, and diseases of the diges- 


five organs, both chronic and acute, from 
which human beings suffer almost universally 
in civilized countries, is ample evidence of the 
sins that are being committed against the stom- 

Eating without appetite is unquestionably a 
serious sin — there can hardly be a greater sin 
against the digestive organs — but the sin of 
deficient mastication undoubtedly comes next. 
In the previous chapter I mentioned the impor- 
tance of the thorough enjoyment of all food 
taken into the stomach — how this ability to 
enjoy every morsel eaten not only aroused the 
salivary glands to vastly increased activity, but 
every one of the juices that assist in the mys- 
terious process of digestion were made to flow 
more freely under those circumstances. Now, 
food cannot be thoroughly enjoyed if not thor- 
oughly masticated. Thorough mastication is 
what produces this enjoyment — is what arous- 
es the sense of taste to its highest capacity, and 
most delicate acuteness. How much enjoy- 
ment does one derive from eating when the 
food is hurriedly bolted ? Practically, none. 


He is one of the " duty " eaters. He eats be- 
cause it is meal time, and because he must 
keep up his strength, and, apparently, is ig- 
norant of the fact that he is not only actually 
draining his strength, by this crime against 
his stomach, but is rapidly wearing out the 
entire internal organism. The digestive or- 
gans of such a person are continually over- 
taxed. They may adapt themselves to the ab- 
normal habits forced upon them, and make no 
special sign that they are suffering from this 
abuse, but the time will come when the penalty 
for this infraction of Nature's plain law will 
be paid in full. 

Nature's laws cannot be broken with impu- 
nity. The penalty of violated human laws is 
often hinged upon the fact of the transgressor 
being found out, but there is not even this 
chance of escaping the just punishment de- 
manded from transgressors of the laws of Na- 

Nature demands that you must enjoy your 
food to the very fullest extent. The pleasure 
of eating should be so great that it blots out 


everything else for the time being. It should 
literally absorb your entire attention. Every 
worry in reference to business, or other trouble, 
should be discarded absolutely from the mind. 
If you are not able to discard all these interfer- 
ences with your dietetic enjoyment you are 
eating without sufficient appetite, and you 
should immediately cease, and wait for an ap- 
petite which will enable you to completely lose 
all external thoughts in the pleasure of satis- 
fying this natural demand of the body. 

Then sit down to feast. Eat very, very 
slowly. Try to see how much enjoyment you 
can extract from every mouthful of food. Re- 
tain it in the mouth, chewing vigorously all the 
while, until it is absolutely reduced to a liquid, 
and until it is swallowed involuntarily. Glad- 
stone's rule of chewing every morsel thirty- 
two times before swallowing is practically no 
guide for you. Even the soft foods, like 
mashed potatoes, for instance, will have to be 
chewed from thirty to fifty times in order to 
reduce them completely to a liquid, and to ex- 
tract all the delicacy of flavor. Dwell on every 


morsel of food as long as it is possible to re- 
tain it without involuntary swallowing. As 
the morsel is submitted to the chewing process 
it gradually grows richer in flavor, more de- 
licious to the taste, and the process should be 
continued until the maximum of this delicacy 
of flavor has been reached. Not until then is 
the food ready to be transferred to the stom- 
ach — not until then do you really get the rich- 
est, most delicious flavor of what you are 

All those who swallow their food previous to 
this point, not only miss the rarest pleasure of 
eating, but they swallow before the food is 
ready for the juices of the stomach to begin 
acting upon it. 

" If we masticate — submit to vigorous jaw 
action — everything that we take into the 
mouth, liquid as well as solid, until the nu- 
tritive part of it disappears into the stomach 
through compulsory or involuntary swallow- 
ing, and remove from the mouth all fibrous, 
insoluble and tasteless remainder, we will take 


into the body thereby only that which is good 
for the body. 

" If a bloated, pimpled, bilious tramp, sorely 
afflicted with two or three internal and intes- 
tinal diseases which have been declared to be 
chronic, can be brought to normal weight, pu- 
rified in complexion, cured of a craving for 
drink, and put in possession of natural man- 
hood and an energy for work, without use of 
medicines, but only with attention to mastica- 
tion, and all within three months, what may 
not be the possibilities involved." — Horace 

Hygienists and physicians everywhere com- 
mend the mixing of conversation, and of other 
social diversions with the pleasures of table. If 
eating and masticating, as suggested here, 
there is no need for such diversion. In 
fact, conversation is liable to seriously in- 
terfere with the proper mastication of the food, 
and distract the attention from the pleasures 
of eating, which should be all absorbing for 
the time being. Of course, I will admit that 
the entertainment afferded by pleasant and 


agreeable companionship during meal time is a 
most decided advantage if one is in the habit 
of eating in the usual rapid manner; for, di- 
version of this nature compels one to eat more 
slowly, forces him to linger more over the va- 
rious dishes, and holds him back from hurry- 
ing through the meal by the gorging process, 
adopted by so many persons when eating alone, 
with appetite, or merely from a sense of duty. 
As stated before, the all absorbing pleasure of 
eating, of gratifying the sense of taste, 
should command the entire attention during a 
meal. You should make a business of enjoy- 
ing this particular pleasure in the greatest pos- 
sible degree, and if this is done properly there 
will be no chance for the introduction of " ta- 
ble talk." 

It is not absolutely necessary that one eat 
alone. No objection can be made to compan- 
ions who do not insist upon diverting the at- 
tention from the main object of the moment, 
but it would be well to remember that, the 
commendable rule of " doing whatever you 
may be engaged in with all your powers," ap- 


plies to eating quite as forcibly as it does to 
other habits or pursuits in life. 

Much has been said in condemnation of the 
person who " lives to eat," but the one who 
really and truly lives so that the greatest pos- 
sible enjoyment from eating can be secured, 
will eat practically but one full meal daily, and 
will dwell on the delectable flavor of every 
morsel, that this meal may continue from an 
hour to an hour and a half. The dietetic en- 
joyment secured by an ordinary everyday Ep- 
icure, who eats three meals a day, is as noth- 
ing compared to the intensity of that pleasure 
derived from eating as described. It is like 
comparing the dulled, transient and intermit- 
tent sensations secured from overworked and 
deadened nerves to those intense emotions 
aroused in one whose nerves are alive with joy 
and power of superb physical life. 

It would be well, also, to note that the re- 
taining of a normal appetite — of that sense of 
taste which enables you to discriminate not 
only as to the character of food needed, but 


also as to quantity — depends largely on per- 
fect mastication. 

" The message of warning which taste gives 
in connection with eating is : ' That while any 
taste is left in a mouthful of food in process 
of mastication or sucking, it is not yet in con- 
dition to be passed on to the stomach; and 
what remains after taste has ceased is not lit 
for the stomach/ " — Horace Fletcher, 

If the food is bolted, if the sense of taste is 
outraged continually, its power naturally be- 
comes dulled and you are left without a guide, 
which should at all times clearly indicate the 
character of the food needed to nourish the 
body, and which should refuse to recognize any 
flavor in any food after the needs of the sys- 
tem have been supplied. 

One can readily imagine the condition of a 
man under the circumstances described. He 
has no definite idea as to what to eat, and 
his only guide is the feeling of fullness in the 

The importance of good teeth is of course 
very great and extreme care should be given 


to them that they may be preserved to the 
end of life. The principal cause of decayed 
teeth, however, is the lack of exercise from 
which they suffer through persistent insuffi- 
cient mastication. If they are given the proper 
use required in order to masticate the food as 
here suggested, they will immediately begin 
to improve in condition. The fermentation of 
foods in the stomach, as evidenced by a foul 
breath and coated tongue, also has much to do 
with the decay of the teeth ; and upon the rec- 
ognition and adoption of the habit of proper 
mastication, these foul conditions will natu- 
rally disappear, and the tendency of the teeth 
to decay from this cause will immediately 
cease, if the teeth are put in good condition, 
all decayed parts removed, and filling used 
where needed. 

i. Esophagus. 2. Stomach. 3. Duodenum. 4. Gallbladder. 
5. Small intestines. 6. Large intestine. 7. Rectum. 8. Biliary duct. 
9. Pancreatic duct. 10. Vermiform appendix. 


(From Dal ton's Physiology.) 



Though I have tried to avoid all possible 
use of technical terms, in the following very 
abbreviated description of the digestive organs 
and their processes, their use will be occasion- 
ally required. 

In order to make the work of digestion as 
clear as possible without a lengthy description, 
we will follow the food in its travels through 
the alimentary canal, explaining the actions 
of the organs and various digestive juices with 
which it comes in contact. 

After food has been called for by appetite 
and has gone through the first process of di- 
gestion by thorough mastication, it is swal- 
lowed and allowed to enter the stomach. Now 
immediately upon entrance, this food comes in 
contact with the gastric juice which is secreted 
by the peptic glands, and which exudes in tiny 
drops from the inner surface of the stomach 


like perspiration from the pores of the skin. 
Not only the quality but the quantity of this 
digestive juice furnished depends greatly upon 
how much food is needed — in other words 
on how hungry you are at the time the food 
is eaten. The feeling of hunger, the ability 
to heartily enjoy the food eaten, is an unmis- 
takable indication that there will be secreted 
a full supply of these digestive juices, that will 
be poured forth copiously as the process of eat- 
ing and digesting continue; and the more in- 
tensely the food is enjoyed, the more each mor- 
sel is dwelt upon in the act of mastication by 
the sense of taste in the endeavor to secure 
its most delicious flavor before swallowing, the 
more freely does the gastric juice flow, and, 
naturally, the more perfectly is the work of 
stomach digestion performed. 

The time required for stomach digestion de- 
pends greatly upon the character of the food, 
and upon how carefully the work of mastica- 
tion has been performed. If the food has been 
hurriedly bolted it will require much longer 
than if it had been practically reduced to a 


liquid before swallowing. The period of di- 
gestion has been variously estimated from two 
to five hours. The stomach, while digestion 
continues, involuntarily churns and presses the 
food back and forth within its walls that it may 
be thoroughly mixed with the gastric juices. 
Portions of the digested food that are rendered 
liquid are all the time being absorbed by the 
stomach during this process. As the gastric 
juice of the stomach only digests albuminous, 
muscle making, articles of food, that will read- 
ily account for the feeling of increased muscu- 
lar power which so quickly follows eating when 
one is tired and much in need of nourishment; 
and, when mastication has been properly per- 
formed, the saliva begins the work of digesting 
all starchy, heating foods, and undoubtedly 
some of this is also absorbed by the glands of 
the stomach, thus also accounting for the feel- 
ing of increased warmth that usually follows 
half an hour or more after a meal. Of course 
immediately after a hearty meal the blood is at- 
tracted to the stomach in such quantities in its 
endeavor to supply the gastric juice and do 


the other work in connection with digestion, 
that one naturally feels the cold more than 
' usual for a short time, if exposed, but this 
passes away within half an hour at most after 
a meal and a feeling of increased warmth is 
then noticed. 

As part of the mass, being digested by the 
stomach, assumes a condition that indicates 
the process of stomach digestion has been com- 
pleted, it is allowed to pass the pylorus and 
enter the duodenum, which is a part of the 
small intestines. Here the food comes in con- 
tact with two other digestive juices that are 
poured forth under normal conditions as needed 
— the bile and pancreatic juices. The bile is 
alkaline in character; it neutralizes the gastric 
juice, emulsifies the fats, making them soluble, 
and it also has antiseptic qualities which act 
upon the entire intestinal canal. The pancreatic 
juice is similar to the saliva of the mouth and 
performs important offices, though in addition 
to digesting starchy elements it also digests 
albuminous — muscle making — and fat. 

From the duodenum the food enters the prin- 


cipal part of the small intestines. Here it 
comes in contact with another fluid called the 
intestinal juice. This juice possesses the power 
pecular to itself of digesting all the various 
food elements, thus practically completing the 
work of digestion. The small intestines are 
supplied with a very large number of 
glands which absorb large quantities of the 
nourishment made ready by the various di- 
gestive juices with which the food had pre- 
viously come in contact. From the small in- 
testines the food is slowly forced into the colon 
where absorption still continues though in a 
much more limited degree. 

For a technical description of the process of 
absorption of the nourishing elements of the 
food, I refer you to the following by Dr. J. H. 
Kellogg : 

" The process of absorption begins almost 
as soon as food is taken into the mouth, and 
continues so long as any soluble nutriment can 
be extracted from the alimentary mass. The 
work of absorption is performed by two sets of 
absorbent vessels, minute veins, and lymphat- 


ics, here called lacteals. The venous absorbents 
take up whatever is held in solution in the food 
taken into the stomach, and the principal por- 
tion of the digested farinaceous, saccharine, 
and albuminous elements of food. The lac- 
teals absorb the emulsified fats, and some por- 
tion of the other elements. The products ab- 
sorbed by the venous absorbents find their way 
into the general circulation through the hepatic 
vein, after passing through the liver, which is 
apparently a wise arrangement of nature, to 
provide for a sort of filtration before the more 
delicate tissues of the body are exposed to the 
action of whatever deleterious elements the 
food may happen to contain. It is claimed by 
physiologists that the liver has also an impor- 
tant function to perform in completing the 
work of digestion, especially that of starchy 
substances. The food mingled with venous 
blood is conveyed to the liver by the portal vein. 
Those products which are absorbed by the lac- 
teals, reach the general circulation through the 
thoracic duct, a long, slender lymph vessel 
which empties " into the large vein from the 
arm on the left side." 



Though air is not generally considered a 
food, the oxygen secured from the air is really 
more essential to life than any food element. 
We can live without food for months ; we can 
live without water for many days, but we can- 
not live without oxygen for five minutes. This 
fact is not recognized generally, and the breath- 
ing of impure air which has been enclosed and 
breathed over and over again, has caused many 
very serious diseases. There is hardly a home 
in which proper precaution is taken to secure 
thorough ventilation during the winter months. 

Air is really a food. It must be looked upon 
as a food because, as I have already mentioned, 
oxygen is more necessary to life than any other 

No matter what precaution we may take to 
build up vigorous health by eating and drink- 
ing proper food in proper quantities, but little 


can be accomplished unless you are careful to 
see that pure air is supplied at all times. Pure 
cold air is one of the greatest tonics in the 
world. I do not personally believe that it has 
ever injured any one, except where the temper- 
ature has been so low, and exposure so great, 
as to actually freeze a part of the body. Colds, 
though apparently produced in numerous in- 
stances by exposure, are really made possible 
because of the existing impure condition of the 
blood. In other words, if enjoying perfectly 
normal health, there is not the slightest dan- 
ger of a cold. 

Impure air is especially the cause of con- 
sumption. Thousands are to-day dying of this 
disease where it has been wholly produced by 
this one cause. They " catch a cold " and from 
that moment live in constant fear of fresh, 
pure air, and the result is that the cold never 
disappears, gradually becomes worse and 
worse, the impurities in the body increase in 
quantity, and the microbes of this disease 
finally secure such a strong hold upon the lungs 
that they sap life rapidly. No matter how care- 

AIR. 41 

ful attention may be given to your diet, if you 
do not realize the importance of pure air, and 
see that you secure it at all times, there will 
be but little chance of developing any great de- 
gree of strength. When air is breathed over 
and over again it reeks with carbonic acid gas 
which is exhaled from the lungs of every living 
being. This is a poison which is most bane- 
ful in its effects, and a diseased condition of 
any character is greatly encouraged under such 
abnormal conditions. 

At night the windows should be open at 
both top and bottom, winter and summer, if 
one expects to retain vigorous health. Without 
pure air you can no more retain health than 
you can live without eating. Of course one 
may be able to apparently enjoy vigorous 
health for a prolonged period and still give 
little attention to the necessity of pure air, but 
this merely indicates the possession of a very 
vigorous constitution, and a continuance of the 
habit of breathing foul, enclosed air will in 
every case ultimately produce serious disease. 
No matter where you may be, whether in office, 


school-room, or in your own private chamber, 
remember the imperative necessity for breath- 
ing air that is liberally supplied with oxygen. 
Perhaps you fear cold air A draught 
may have all sorts of diseases in its grasp. 
When I first began the study of hygiene and 
health many years ago, I was continually puz- 
zled by the average person's fear of draughts. 
Draughts are currents of air. But one could 
meet a current of air on any windy day. Then 
later it was explained that a draught was a 
current of cold air in a warm room. In other 
words, if one is in a warm atmosphere and a 
cold current of air comes in contact with one 
part of his body, while other parts are encom- 
passed in warm air, this cold air is supposed to 
be a draught. 

But whenever one leaves a warm room the 
tface and hands or other parts not covered 
would come in direct contact with this cold air, 
while the covered parts remained in the warm 
air, retained by the clothing; therefore, any 
time one goes out in cold weather he submits 
himself to exactly the same conditions as when 

air. 43 

encountering a draught in a warm room. This 
caused me to immediately conclude that the 
supposed effects of draughts existed in the 
imagination only, and for many years I have 
made a practice of sleeping with one of these 
much-libeled draughts, blowing directly upon 
me, for then, I can breathe air rich in oxygen 
and pure in quality. I am unquestionably 
stronger and healthier because of this practice, 
and never have known a single occasion when it 
has produced any ill effects, though I have ac- 
tually felt its wonderful health-giving influ- 
ence on innumerable instances. 

Now let me state clearly my conclusions : 
Cold air, whether a draught or otherwise, 
never has in a single instance produced any ill 
effects, unless preceded by very serious suf- 
fering because of severe cold ; and even in this 
case, no possible harm can result unless the in- 
dividual is not accustomed to cold air, or part 
of his body has actually been frozen by the ex- 
treme cold. 

You may ask, why does cold air sometimes 
produce colds? 


Because the influence of cold air tends to 
bring every organ into a more normal vigorous 
condition, and when a cold is produced, it is 
simply one step toward recovery or normal 
health. The system was over-loaded with im- 
purities at the time of exposure, and the cold 
air created the cold as a means of assisting in 
the elimination of these impurities. 

A cold never injured a single human being. 
It is the treatment for colds that produces 
death, from pneumonia, consumption and hun- 
dred of other serious diseases that often follow 

The influences which fill the system full of 
impurities are the real cause of colds. This 

condition is brought about usually by over- 
eating, lack of exercise, breathing and re- 
breathing confined air, or over-loading the 
body with clothing, or any excess or evil hab- 
its that lessen the vigor of the body. 

To cure a cold, you simply use every possi- 
ble means to assist in the elimination of the 
impurities which are being expelled by the cold. 
When these impurities are all eliminated the 

air. 45 

cold will, of course, disappear. Instead of be- 
ing afraid of draughts, make a special effort to 
live in them as much as possible; instead of 
covering the body with heavy clothing day and 
night, use barely sufficient to keep warm, and 
no more; instead of eating without appetite or 
endeavoring to excite a false one, do not eat 
until your craving for food becomes intense, 
and usually, if several meals are missed, the 
cure will be much speedier because of this ab- 
stinence. Of course, vigorous exercise, long 
walks, deep breathing and the increased activ- 
ity of the skin, produced by exposing the sur- 
face of the body directly to the air, and by 
friction with a soft bristle brush, will be of 
great benefit in eliminating these impurities 
and thus bringing about normal health. 



Though many do not consider water a food 
for the reason that it does not furnish energy, 
it nevertheless constitutes a large part of the 
body, and is as necessary to life as any other 
element which enters into its composition. The 
importance of pure water can hardly be exag- 
erated. That which comes from springs is 
usually considered the most wholesome. Well 
water, in numerous instances, has been found 
to be about as pure, though where a well is 
located adjoining outhouses — stables, privies, 
etc., — there is always very serious danger of 
their impurities contaminating the water. The 
water supplied in cities, though in some in- 
stances very bad, is usually far better than the 
well water secured in such localities. 

Referring to the mineral waters that are on 
sale everywhere I would say that as a rule they 
cannot be commended. About the only advan- 

WATER. 47 

tage possessed by these waters is merely the 
fact that one drinks a larger quantity of them 
than ordinary water, and the body is thus 
flushed and cleansed. If one would simply se- 
cure some pure water and by adding salt or any 
harmless element that will cause him to drink 
largely increased quantities of it, exactly iden- 
tical results can be produced, to those brought 
about by the use of mineral waters. The prin- 
cipal ingredient in most of these mineral 
waters which causes one to largely increase the 
amount used, is salt. This may have an ad- 
vantageous influence, upon the system when the 
body is filled with impurities, as the purifying 
quality of salt is well known, though some hy- 
gienists claim, probably with grounds for their 
conclusion, that salt if used continually in great 
quantities, has a tendency to dry up the tissues. 
The best way to judge as to the purity of 
the water is to carefully note as to whether it 
has the slightest taste, and if there is no indi- 
cation of this, you can depend upon its purity. 
Of course where one's taste has been blunted 
by over-eating and other intemperate indul- 


gences it would be difficult for taste to dis- 
tinguish the difference. 

Most sedentary workers do not drink suffi- 
cient water. It is a well-known fact that a cer- 
tain quantity of liquid is necessary to the proper 
circulation of the blood, and to enable all the 
organs of the body to properly perform their 
functions. In diseased conditions of all kinds 
the drinking of copious draughts of water will, 
in nearly every case, be found productive of 
beneficial results. 

Distilled water can be recommended, and an 
apparatus can be bought which will furnish it, 
but it is well to remember that distilled water 
contains no minerals of any character, and nu- 
merous authorities maintain that a certain 
amount of mineral elements in water is advan- 
tageous. I would call attention to chapter re- 
ferring to mineral food elements. 

Filtering is of course of advantage, and 
whenever the water is inclined to be unsatisfac- 
tory a filter can be purchased, or a cheap one 
can easily be made for home use by merely ar- 
ranging an apparatus so the water will pass 

WATER. 49 

through sand and charcoal. The necessity, 
however, for frequently cleaning the charcoal 
should not be forgotten. 

The quantity of water needed to maintain 
the proper condition depends very greatly upon 
the individual and upon the temperature. In 
very warm weather considerable water is nec- 
essary, that the exterior part of the body may 
be cooled by evaporation, or perspiration, as it 
is usually termed. No matter how high the at- 
mospheric temperature, the body retains in all 
cases when in a normal condition, a tempera- 
ture of about 98^ degrees Fahrenheit, and 
this is maintained simply by the cooling of the 
exterior surface from evaporation; thus you 
can readily see, if engaged in some vigorous 
exercise that heats the blood, or if the tempera- 
ture is high, the necessity for water greatly in- 

Though pure water is unquestionably of 
great advantage, it would be well to call atten- 
tion to the fact that if the body is in a normal 
condition of vigorous health there is little dan- 
ger from water which gives no evidence of im- 


purities to the taste. Under normal conditions 
of perfect health no disease germs of any kind 
can live in the human stomach. There are 
germs of health as well as germs of disease, 
and when the body is in a perfect condition, 
these germs of health are always stronger than 
any disease germs which may be introduced, 
and under these circumstances they are always 
the victors when compelled to come in contact 
with the baneful enemies to health. 



One of the greatest sins against the body is 
overeating. The intemperate indulgence in al- 
coholic liquors, is, unquestionably, a great evil. 
It fills thousands of graves, and ruins thou- 
sands of homes, annually. But the evil of alco- 
holic intemperance is at nothing when com- 
pared to the evil of overeating. The habit of 
overeating is almost universal. Hardly a home 
exists that is not made unhappy, to a greater or 
less extent, by this habit. Hardly a life has 
been wrecked in health that this evil has not 
played an important part in causing the wreck- 
age ? In fact the evil of alcoholic intemperance 
itself, is largely caused by overeating. The 
stomach becomes overloaded ; the mass refuses 
to digest — it ferments, and there is a desire for 
something, the victim hardly knows what — 
anything to rid the stomach of its vile contents. 
Alcohol affords this temporary relief. It spurs 


up the organs to increased activity, as they en- 
deavor to quickly eliminate the poison, and 
when alcoholic liquors are taken under fliese 
abnormal conditions, it may actually be a nat- 
ural appetite and productive of benefit instead 
of evil, for the evil that will result from the 
undigested mass of fermenting food if it re- 
mains in the stomach for a great length of time 
might be as great or greater than that resulting 
from the use of liquor. 

There has been so much preaching on alco- 
holic intemperance that whenever one speaks 
of intemperance he is supposed to refer only to 
this evil. But it is time these narrow-minded 
temperance advocates were awakened — it is 
time for them to realize that the real cause of 
alcoholic intemperance is intemperance in eat- 
ing; and never until this is understood and 
made plain to the victims and the classes that 
are to furnish other victims, will anything of 
importance be accomplished towards stamping 
out the alcohol curse. Intemperance begins at 
the family table, and it is perfectly natural, 


perfectly logical, for it to drift to the corner 

Overeating permanently distends the walls 
of the stomach, and lessens their muscular vig- 
or. It often actually strains these muscles per- 
manently, and the churning process so neces- 
sary to perfect digestion, which the muscles 
involuntarily perform, cannot be properly ac- 
complished. They become weakened just as 
would a muscle in the arm if unduly strained, 
or overworked. Their efficacy lessens under 
these circumstances to a similar degree. It 
would be well for every reader to remember 
that the entire digestive process is brought 
about largely by involuntary muscular action, 
and when the muscles are unnaturally strained 
as they are where the stomach is habitually 
overloaded, all the muscles are weakened and 
their functions greatly impaired, and in the 
end destroyed. 

" There are two w r ays of putting a limit to 
a meal — to eating. One — the wrong one — 
comes in the shape of a protest on the part of 
a too full stomach while the appetite is yet rav- 


enous. The right one comes naturally from a 
perfectly satisfied feeling — a ceasing of desire 
for anything more, no matter how alluring to 
the palate — before the stomach is overbur- 
dened. The former is evidence of glut, or 
gluttony, and the latter is Nature's way, for 
which there is every desired reward." — Hor- 
ace Fletcher. 

The gastric and various other juices, so nec- 
essary in the stomach's perfect work of diges- 
tion, are not supplied in sufficient quantities, 
nor of proper strength, when overeating is 
habitually indulged in. This naturally causes 
serious complications, for which every remedy 
known to medical science has been prescribed 
without avail, unless the causes of the condi- 
tion were discovered, and removed. 

Thus, you can readily perceive that these two 
results of overeating — the weakening of all the 
belt of muscles about the stomach and other 
vital organs that carry on involuntarily the 
very necessary work in connection with the di- 
gestive process, and the lessening in quantity 
and quality of the digestive juices — would se- 


riously interfere with general nutrition. Not 
only is the quantity that could be secreted by 
the various glands of absorption lessened, but 
the quality of the secretion is poor. Every 
part of the nourishment absorbed under such 
circumstances is filled with impurities and for- 
eign matter that the natural depurating organs 
have difficulty in elminating, and the result is 
these impurities finally permeate every part of 
the entire body. 

The presence of these impurities is mani- 
fested in various forms. Medical science has 
thousands of names for diseases that are noth- 
ing more than efforts on the part of the func- 
tional system to discharge superfluous and 
harmful impurities that have been brought into 
the body. Eruptions, boils and all skin dis- 
eases are the results of nothing but impurities 
being discharged through the skin. Rheuma- 
tism, pneumonia, fevers, headaches, neuralgia, 
etc., are nothing but impurities overburdening 
some particular part of the body, and the cry- 
ing out of muscles and nerves against their 
existence; and in nearly every case whatever 


the so-called disease, or its nature, these im- 
purities are present in the system primarily 
because food was taken into the stomach in 
excess of the body's needs, and beyond the 
powers of the digestive organs. 

"It is generally supposed that if a man has 
an unusually large day's work to perform, he 
must eat an unusually large breakfast and a 
proportionately large dinner. This is certainly 
an error. Large demands upon either the mus- 
cular or the nervous system for the time be- 
ing detract from the power to digest. The 
stomach requires nervous energy to enable it 
to perform its function. If the nervous forces 
are otherwise engaged or used, they cannot be 
utilized in digestion. Hence it follows, the- 
oretically, at least, that instead of giving the 
digestive organs an extra task in preparation 
for an extra effort, they should be required to 
perform less than the ordinary amount of la- 
bor. Experience as well as theory supports 
this view. Sir Isaac Newton, when employed 
in his most arduous labors, lived upon bread 
and water, and fasted for long intervals. Gen- 


eral Elliot, the famous defender of Gibraltar, 
is said to have subsisted for a number of days 
on a litle boiled rice. The wonderful L'homme 
Serpent of Paris, always fasted for twelve 
hours before attempting to perform his mar- 
velous feats of agility. This plan not only se- 
cures a higher degree of efficiency in the effort 
made, but prevents, in great degree, the in- 
jury liable to result from excessive exertion. 
When required to overwork for a succession 
of days, we have found that we were not only 
able to perform much more work, but to do it 
with less effort at the time, and less exhaustion 
afterward, when taking a greatly reduced quan- 
tity of food than when attempting to do the 
same work and still taking the usual quantity 
of food. I have no doabt that a neglect of 
this precaution is a not frequent cause of many 
of the sudden deaths of which we so often re- 
ceive accounts, especially among politicians and 
public men. Overloading the stomach and 
overworking the brain at the same time is ex- 
ceedingly dangerous. The man who over- 
works mentally must be temperate; he must 


exercise the greatest moderation in his eating, 
and must totally discard all stimulants and 
narcotics. A great share of the cases of apo- 
plexy occur when the stomach is full. The 
increased clearness of • intellect which results 
from abstemiousness will repay one for all the* 
self-denial practised."—/. H. Kellogg, M.D. 

The continued strain on the digestive appar- 
atus caused by overeating not only weakens 
the general digestive powers, but the entire 
muscular and nervous system as well, as it 
suffers severely in consequence of this. That 
" tired feeling " is always present. You never 
have any energy — all your enthusiasm seems 
to have disappeared. The impure condition 
of the blood would naturally cause this, but 
the fact that all the energies are spent in the 
endeavor to right the digestive disorders, to 
rid the stomach of the loads that are continually 
being forced upon it, no doubt does much to 
influence this condition. 

" Gluttony imposes upon the body a quantity 
of matter which is underdone; that is, under- 


prepared; so that only a small portion of it is 
suitable for nutrition, leaving the greater part 
to ferment within the channels and strain the 
intestines until they are contused and weak- 

" Such is the impetuosity of uncultivated or 
perverted human tendencies that the desire for 
acquisition, sometimes called greed, impels one 
to swallow one mouthful of food to take in an- 
other, without ever dreaming that the very last 
contribution of taste to the last remnant of a 
delicious morsel is like the last flicker of a can- 
dle, more brilliant than any of the preceding 
ones. In eating, the last taste is more perfectly 
in possession of the solution, is better than all 
the other stages of the process. It is the choic- 
est and sweetest expression of the incident, as 
related to each mouthful. Then why not court 
it and obey, thereby, Nature's first law of 
health ?" — Horace Fletcher. 

The brain, also, suffers intensely. It is al- 
most impossible to do brain work with any de- 
gree of satisfaction. There seems to be no 
connection between your thoughts. The power 


of concentrating the mind upon any subject 
entirely disappears. 

Another unfortunate result of overeating is 
the entire disappearance of a normal appetite. 
One cannot tell by the appetite what the system 
mostly needs. He or she simply eats until a 
feeling of fullness indicates that the stomach 
is crammed to its capacity, as a packing case, 
and that it is time to cease, instead of eating 
until hunger has been appeased. As explained 
in a previous chapter, eating, without appetite, 
is an outrage against the stomach. The victim 
of overeating always eats without appetite. He 
may have a desire for something — anything to 
relieve his unsatisfactory feelings — but a nor- 
mal craving for food needed to nourish the 
body, he really never experiences. 

These victims of overeating are sometimes 
thin, even to emaciation. They so overcrowd 
their digestive organs that really every parti- 
cle of vital energy is used to rid themselves of 
the never-ending supply. Others assume chroni- 
cally a bloated appearance, though the skin 
looks rough and unwholesome in appearance 


and color. Many victims of this vice will say 
" I never overeat. Why, I hardly eat anything 
— I have no appetite — I merely eat enough to 
keep up my strength." 

The one who loads his stomach to its fullest 
capacity is not so great a sinner as he who 
merely eats under the idiotic idea that he is 
keeping up his strength. When one loads the 
stomach to repletion he usually eats with appe- 
tite, the food is invited, but the " eat-to-keep- 
up-my-strength " idiot never allows his stom- 
ach to prepare for food, never gives it sufficient 
rest that it may develop an appetite, and under 
these circumstances indulgence in the smallest 
possible quantity of food would be overeating. 



Though I believe either the two or the one- 
meal plan would be found superior to three 
meals each day, one can undoubtedly follow 
this usual method and still retain vigorous 
health if he will occasionally fast by missing 
one or two meals, or a day or two when the 
appetite fails; and if he will abstain totally 
from food when illness of any kind threatens. 
In eating three meals daily there is always far 
more danger of eating beyond the capacity to 
digest. One meal is sometimes not digested 
when the next meal is eaten. The food, under 
these circumstances, is eaten with less appetite, 
and all the ills that are brought about by the 
sin of eating as a duty are invited. If three 
light meals can be eaten each day, always 
with appetite, and if they seem to digest with- 
out trouble, there is no very serious objection; 
but the moment any digestive disturbance be- 


comes evident, the one or two meal habit 
should be immediately adopted. 

It would also be well to remember that the 
three meal habit often tends to actually lessen 
the virility of the blood. The gastric, and other 
digestive juices are not sufficiently strong to 
abstract all the best elements of the food; the 
blood becomes filled with waste and other for- 
eign matter, and the process of eliminating 
this, results not only in a waste of energy, but 
usually, under such circumstances, there exists 
at least a chronic " tired feeling/' though often 
troubles are induced that are far more serious 
in character. 

If one is doing hard manual work there will 
be found little or no difficulty in digesting 
three meals, though two meals would certainly 
be better; but mental workers, to my mind, 
make a great mistake if they attempt to force 
this same habit upon themselves. In fact the 
belief so universally held that we must eat 
three meals each day to maintain health is un- 
questionably one of the principal causes that 
lead to many serious illnesses. It is this false 


theory that compels many a poor weakling to 
eat because it is the usual time, and every mor- 
sel adds to the poison and filth that is already 
lessening his physical forces. Whatever hab- 
its of eating you may have adopted keep clearly 
in mind the necessity for that appetite described 
in previous chapter, to lead and guide you. If 
you do this the problem of how many meals 
to partake of daily will solve itself. You will 
at once avoid those meals for which you have 
no appetite and, in consequence, eat more 
heartily and with more benefit, of those you do 
enjoy. There is at least a grain of truth in 
the old and oft-quoted saying : " What is one 
man's meat is another's poison," and each in- 
dividual must study out these problems for 
himself, and, though experiments that are ex- 
treme in character are not advised, still a trial 
of, first the two-meal plan, and, later the one- 
meal plan, can do no possible harm, and the 
experiment will enable you to determine just 
what is best for your particular needs. But 
little knowledge can be gained by one or two 
days' trial. At least a week should be devoted 


to each method if you are desirous of secur- 
ing knowledge of value in determining as to 
your personal needs. The no-breakfast method 
often proves its advantage by showing an in- 
crease of energy the first or second day of trial. 
I have nothing to say to those who consider 
more than three meals per day necessary. It 
is simply impossible to retain vigorous health 
for any length of time under such dietetic in- 
temperance, and usually a liberal quantity of 
alcoholic liquors must be used to spur the diges- 
tive organs to their labors, and, though this 
alcohol may suffice for a time, there results such 
a waste in vitality, such a drain on energy, that 
the term of life is unquestionably lessened, and 
serious ailments are sure to be produced sooner 
or later, by the habit of continually overload- 
ing the stomach. 



Two meals each day will furnish necessary 
nourishment for any one, no matter what his 
occupation may be. The idea that the stomach 
must never be empty, that it must have some- 
thing to work on or it will digest itself is the 
product of brains that cannot deduce true 
conclusions from plain facts. For the past fif- 
teen years I have personally followed the two- 
meal a day habit. On numerous occasions I 
have tried, three, four and even five meals a 
day, but on comparison of my mental and 
physical condition with that which was usual 
on the two-meal plan I always went back to 
two meals. At the time when I was doing the 
hardest physical work I ever was occupied with 
during my entire life, I only ate two daily 
meals, and one of these was usually a light 
lunch. This was when training for hard cham- 
pionship wrestling matches, and there is really 


no harder physical work than this. At this 
particular time, when my muscles had to be 
able to withstand the enormous efforts re- 
quired in struggling with well-trained and 
burly antagonists I had an occasion to learn 
in a most striking manner, the value of the 
two-meal-a-day plan. In a wrestling match 
endurance is of great value. The ability to 
struggle and strain apparently with all your 
power and still seem not to tire, is one of the 
necessary qualities in a successful wrestler. I 
was some time in acquiring this, but when I 
finally concluded that diet was of some impor- 
tance, and began to experiment, not only with 
different foods, but also with the quantity nec- 
essary to maintain the greatest strength, I 
secured information of great value. My exper- 
iment taught me that the less you eat the better 
what you do eat is digested. That induced me 
to try the two-meal-per-day plan, and the al- 
most immediate increase in my endurance so 
impressed me that the habit of eating only two 
meals per day has practically been followed by 
me ever since. On many occasions, after 


adopting this new diet I met wrestlers who 
seemed as strong and as scientific as I, but I 
felt at the time that they were doomed to de- 
feat simply because my diet was superior to 
theirs, and, as stated in another chapter, never 
on any occasion after I adopted this plan of 
diet was I thrown a single fall in a wrestling 
match at my favorite style. 

About the easiest method of giving this 
two-meal-a-day plan a trial, if living with a 
family where three daily meals are served, is 
to avoid breakfast altogether, eating your first 
meal at noon; or, if this is difficult, the first 
meal can be eaten in the morning, and the 
other meal in the evening. The best time to eat 
under these circumstances is the first meal be- 
tween 10.30 and 11.30, and the second meal 
between 5.30 and 6.30. Usually the hours here 
mentioned will be found satisfactory, but the 
occupation, the hour of rising and retiring 
would naturally have considerable influence 
upon the proper time for meals. The first meal 
should be eaten from four to five hours after 
rising, and the second meal should follow this 


five or six hours later. As to which meal 
should be the heartiest, should advise one to 
depend altogether on the appetite; though, if 
the second meal is not eaten several hours be- 
fore retiring the first meal should be the 
heartiest, as the digestive powers must be very 
strong to counteract the evil effects of retiring 
after a very hearty meal. 



To most Americans one meal per day would 
seem like starvation, but many thin persons 
have been known to gain greatly in weight by 
the adoption of this abstemious diet. The ex- 
planation of this apparent phenomenon is sim- 
ple. When following the regular three-meal 
plan, they had acquired a habit of eating be- 
yond their power to properly digest, and of 
eating at meal time regardless of whether an 
appetite existed or not, and the result of this 
pernicious practice was naturally disordered 
and weakened digestive organs, and when the 
one-meal plan was adopted the food was not 
taken until there was an actual need for it, un- 
til the stomach was able to receive and dispose 
of it, and the natural result was gradual in- 
crease in weight and strength. 

One's habits in eating must be determined 
largely by his occupation. One meal each day, 


though not by any means a hardship for those 
following mental and other sedentary occupa- 
tions, would be rather difficult for the manual 
worker who begins early and labor until late. 

I have personally followed the one daily 
meal for a month or more at one time, and have 
lost no weight worth mentioning and have been 
able to do my work with the same energy as 
usual. One very pleasant feature about this 
plan is the keeness of the appetite. There is 
no " dilly dallying " at meal time under these 
circumstances. You are there to eat, and even 
if your food is of the plainest kind every mor- 
sel is dwelt upon and enjoyed to the fullest 
extent. The great importance of enjoying your 
food has been explained in a previous chapter, 
and this one-meal plan will quickly, in every 
case, entirely cure any lack of appetite. And 
for this purpose alone — that is, creating a 
keen relish for food — it is especially advised 
and should be adopted in every case as the first 
means of remedying lack of appetite. 

Of course, the meal under such circum- 
stances is always quite heavy and no active 


work of any kind should be attempted for 
sometime after. All the energies of the body 
are then needed to digest, and nothing should 
be allowed to interfere with this important 
work. This meal could be eaten in the middle 
of the day though the best time would nat- 
urally be in the evening after the day's work is 
done. It should of course precede the time for 
retiring several hours, as the work of digestion 
is not usually carried on with the same energy 
during sleep as when awake. 

Many object to this plan because of the fear 
of overloading the stomach. There is but little 
danger of this if the rules in reference to proper 
mastication are followed. It is only when the 
food is hurriedly bolted that the appetite is un- 
able to indicate when sufficient food has been 
eaten, and when you blunt and deaden the sense 
of taste by such unnatural speed in eating you 
must not complain if it fails in its duty. 



Though I am inclined to favor what is called 
a vegetarian diet, when milk and eggs are not 
excluded, I am not one of those who holds that 
a high degree of health cannot also be acquired 
and retained with a mixed diet. I firmly believe 
that meat is, to a certain extent, stimulating in 
character, and that more impurities will be de- 
posited in the body under its influence than 
that of the vegetarian regimen. Fasting will 
be necessary more often, as a means of cleans- 
ing the body when meat is used than with a 
strictly vegetable diet. However, if one takes 
regular exercise, does not gourmandize, and 
fasts when necessary, he can undoubtedly fol- 
low the mixed diet, and live to a good old age, 
and probably enjoy as good health as the non- 

The average man, if left to his own choice, 
readily adopts the combination diet. To some 


this might show that instinct influences this 
choice, and it is therefore the natural diet, but 
this is hardly the case. We might just as well 
say that instinct teaches one to like whiskey 
and tobacco. Human beings in their habits 
are not far different from sheep. They always 
follow some leader, and each leader in turn 
follows some other leader. It is really remark- 
able how little we question the wisdom of those 
who came before us. 

In my own athletic experience, when I was 
compelled to carefully note the influence of all 
kinds of food on health and strength, I found 
that meat would increase my actual strength, 
but would lessen my endurance. I could lift a 
heavier weight under the influence of a diet 
in which meat was liberally supplied, but could 
not lift a lighter weight so many times. I 
found, also, that eggs were not open to the same 
objection as meats, though they seemed nearly, 
if not quite equal as a means of supplying 
strength. In eating the flesh of animals you, 
of course, consume not only the perfect muscle 
cells, but also a certain amount of waste matter 


that would naturally always be present, while 
in an egg you secure practically nothing but 
pure nourishment. Both strength and endur- 
ance are necessary, not only in all athletic con- 
tests, but in every condition of life, and in ? 
solving the problem of how to attain my great- 
est possible strength without losing endurance, 
I found, after many and prolonged experiments, 
that although some meat seemed necessary, it 
was desirable to greatly limit the quantity. I 
ate eggs quite frequently, but usually would not 
touch meats oftener than once in two to four 
days. At this particular time I was training 
for hard wrestling contests, where not only 
great strength but great endurance was re- 
quired, and with my two-meal per day diet, 
consisting mostly of eggs, whole wheat bread, 
vegetables and fruits, with an occasional in- 
dulgence in meat, as mentioned, I was in such 
condition that no wrestler ever gained even a 
fall from me at my favorite style, and many of 
my opponents were men who weighed from ten 
to fifty pounds more than I. 

A diet of meat alone, which has been advo- 


cated by some enthusiasts, has never in the 
slightest degree appealed to me. Though I have 
been willing to experiment on all sorts of the- 
ories in reference to diet, this exclusive meat 
theory always appeared to be entirely devoid of 
the slightest excuse for existence. The indi- 
viduals who have held these theories have, no 
doubt, effected temporary cures in numerous 
cases, as the average individual, if confined to 
any one particular food, would usually recover 
under its influence for the simple reason that in 
nearly every case the principal cause of illness 
is overeating, and whenever one article of diet 
is used and all others avoided, the natural re- 
sult is the quantity eaten is greatly lessened, 
and the entire system secures an opportunity to 
thoroughly cleanse itself. It might be well to 
note that these same persons who were able to 
recover under the influence of a meat diet would 
have recovered far quicker under the influence 
of no diet at all; in other words, by fasting. 
I have never met but one victim of the ex- 
clusive meat-diet theory, and his appearance 
would not by any means have influenced me 


favorably towards it. This man was at one 
time an athlete of great reputation, and his 
exclusive meat diet, together with other the- 
ories along dietetic lines, had simply reduced 
him a physical wreck. He was finally con-f 
fined in an insane asylum as irresponsible, 
and afterwards died of consumption. I do 
not for a moment believe that the cause of 
all his troubles and untimely end was the meat 
diet solely, but I firmly believe that it had 
strong influence in bringing about these unsat- 
isfactory results. 

The question as to which diet is superior, the 
mixed or vegetarian diet, may be worthy of 
consideration, and each individual should settle 
it for himself and abide by his own conclusions, 
but the exclusive meat diet has not a single 
rational excuse which will uphold it. 



Though I am inclined to favor a vegetable 
diet I am not one of the rabid kind. I usually 
eat whatever my appetite calls for, and some- 
times do not touch meat of any kind for 
months. I firmly believe that if one can se- 
cure a sufficient variety of fruits, grains, veg- 
etables and nuts that there is not only no actual 
need for meat, and that one would be far better 
off without it. Meat unquestionably tends to fill 
the blood with elements that cannot be readily 
eliminated by the depurating organs. If meat 
was included in my diet when attacked by ill- 
ness, as a first step towards a cure, it was al- 
ways immediately avoided, and often this has 
been all that was necessary in order to bring 
about the desired results. But the most startling 
evidence in favor of vegetarianism is the fact 
proven in my own athletic experience, and in 
the experience of many others, that the vege- 


tarian diet gives one far greater endurance than 
the meat diet. It makes a better quality of 
muscle. The theory is maintained that the food 
in meat has already been used by the animal 
from which it was secured, and, in eating his 
flesh you really secure nourishment second 
hand. The life principle in the vegetable mat- 
ter, that the animal converted into flesh, has 
been partly consumed by him, and in eating his 
flesh you are simply able to extract what re- 

There is no doubt that a better quality of 
blood is made from a vegetarian than from a 
meat diet. There is less danger of overeating. 
Many say that the average vegetarian does not 
seem as vigorous as the meat eater, and there 
is a certain degree of truth in this claim, but 
it must be remembered that vegetarians are not 
stimulated up to the highest point as meat eat- 
ers usually are. Furthermore, meat eaters are 
more often addicted to the use of alcohol than 
are vegetarians. This naturally adds more 
flesh, and gives them a more vigorous appear- 
ance in the eyes of those who are unfamiliar 


with the natural signs of health. Fat is not 
health. Bloated red cheeks are not by any 
means a sign of health. They are a sign of 
disease and such a person is just " ripe " for 
the first microbe that happens to come his way. 

Then again, many vegetarians are poorly 
nourished. They do not eat the proper foods. 
They eat too much white bread and other foods 
that do not contain the necessary elements to 
feed the body in proper proportion. Many 
vegetarians also eat too frequently, do not fast 
when nature commands, and they suffer from 
overcrowding their digestive organs, just as 
does the meat eater. 

Vegetarianism is unquestionably the natural 
diet of man. He will attain a more mature age 
when subsisting on this character of food than 
when on flesh diet. When the fact is consid- 
ered that nearly all of our own medium class 
farmers are practically vegetarians, not from 
choice, but because of their inability to get 
fresh meat there remains but little to support 
the flesh-diet theory. 

Attention is often called to the British as the 


meat-eating nation, and even there the poorer 
classes of England, Ireland and Scotland, 
which, really furnish the vigor upon which is 
founded the brains of the country, are nour- 
ished almost entirely on vegetarian diet. Like 
our own middle-class farmers they can not af- 
ford meat more than once or twice each week, 
and sometimes not even so frequently. No 
serious objection can be made to eggs and milk 
if they seem to be properly digested, though 
in the strictest sense they are not really a part 
of vegetarian diet. 

Each individual should study out his own 
salvation. Find the diet that seems to furnish 
the most energy and then adhere to it until 
you have good reason to change. If this 
suggestion is followed, sufficient care is main- 
tained not to overeat, regular exercise is taken 
and if an occasional fast of a day or two is 
practiced when necessary, there will be but little 
deviation from that high degree of health which 
fills life with such vast possibilities. 



From a theoretical standpoint it is easy to 
reason to the conclusion that a raw diet — 
grains, vegetables, fruits and nuts — should be 
the natural food of man. One can easily imag- 
ine how the first man to discover fire found 
comfort in basking in its warmth, and how nat- 
ural it would be under these circumstances for 
him to also first warm any food that he might 
wish to eat. 

Thus it is not at all difficult to find the origin 
of cooking, for, from warming to cooking a 
food is but a step. Although from a theoretical 
standpoint raw food seems to have been intend- 
ed by nature as the best for all animal kind, 
human and otherwise, the fact that we have 
for many generations subsisted almost entirely 
on cooked food must be considered. Although 
many experiments are recorded where a raw- 
food diet has been followed with advantage, 


there is not a large amount of satisfactory in- 
formation to be obtained on the subject. It 
appears that those who have adopted a diet 
of this character were usually in bad health, 
and naturally not a great amount of confidence 
is created unless one can point to a vigorous 
example of the results of following a particular 
diet. Recently, however, there has been more 
interest in the subject, and I am personally car- 
rying on some experiments that will no doubt 
enable me to say something of value along this 
line in the next edition of this book. This 
much has been conclusively proven, namely that 
diseased conditions of all kinds will disappear 
more rapdly under the influence of a prop- 
erly arranged raw diet than with a cooked 
diet. A raw diet contains of course, all the 
waste that is so advantageous in keeping the 
bowels regular, while most cooked foods are 
sadly lacking in this regard. One enthusiast 
on a raw diet, who claims to have cured himself 
of serious physical weakness by adopting this 
diet, states that cooking destroys the life germs 
of all grains, and that in eating such food we 


lose just that much. In other words he main- 
tains that if the food is eaten raw one will ab- 
sorb this life germ, that it will add just that 
much to life, and strength, and the theory un- 
doubtedly sounds quite plausible. I have done 
some experimenting with a raw diet and the re- 
sults have been of a character to encourage me 
to desire to do more. But enthusiastic read- 
ers are warned to use great care in any exper- 
iments they may attempt. Do not go to ex- 
tremes. In any radical change that you may 
contemplate making in your diet you should 
feel your way step by step. All the raw-food 
enthusiasts claim that there is not the slightest 
danger of overeating when following this nat- 
ural diet, that it does away entirely with the de- 
sire for a stimulant of any kind. 

There is, however, much to be learned along 
this line and it would be well for those inclined 
to be reckless to await the results of the experi- 
ments of those who have given the subject 
careful study before seriously considering the 
advisability of giving such a diet a trial. An 
experiment made by the U. S. Agricultural De- 


partment has clearly shown that cooking tends 
to decrease the digestibility of foods in the case 
of animals. Though it will naturally be argued 
that this proves little or nothing as to the value 
of cooking foods intended for the human stom- 
ach, because of our having been accustomed to 
cooked food for generations; still, it shows 
quite clearly that there is reason to believe that 
prolonged experimenting with raw-food diet 
for human beings may reveal some valuable 

I quote the following from the U. S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture's Bulletin No. 22 : — 

" Ladd, while connected with the New York 
State Station, reported analyses of cooked and 
uncooked clover hay and corn-meal and deter- 
mination of digestibility of the same. These 
showed that the percentage of albuminoids and 
fat and the relative digestibility of the albumin- 
oids were more or less diminished by cooking. 
The experiments made by our experiment sta- 
tions in preparing food have been mostly with 
pigs. At least thirteen separate series of experi- 
ments in different parts of this country have 


been reported on the value of cooking or steam- 
ing food for pigs. In these cooked or steamed 
barley, meal, corn-meal and shorts; whole corn; 
potatoes, and a mixture of peas, barley, and rye 
have been compared with the same food Un- 
cooked (usually dry). In ten of these trials 
there has not only been no gain from cooking, 
but there has been a positive loss, i. e., the 
amount of food required to produce a pound of 
gain was larger when the food was cooked than 
when it was fed raw, and in some cases the 
difference has been considerable." 

Prof. Byron Tyler has some interesting the- 
ories about raw food which I quote here- 
with : — 

" All disease is the result of disobedience of 
Nature's laws. It is a crime againt Nature to 
eat the food she provides in any other condi- 
tion than that in which she provides them. Na- 
ture doer not err. 

" No one can improve upon Nature, yet 
that's what man attempts to do when he sub- 
jects his food to the heat of fire, destroying its 


vitality and changing its chemical constituents. 
The product of mother earth, given us for sus- 
tenance, are uncooked save by the heat of the 
sun — the source of all energy. 

" The sun is productive of life. Fire is de- 
structive of life. 

" Cooking destroys the life cells in food — 
the cells which make and sustain life in man. 
Cook a seed thoroughly and see whether it will 
sprout when planted. Or graft a dead cutting 
to a live limb and see whether it will grow or 
whether it will help the growth of the live 
branch. All live vegetation is capable of either 
reproducing its own kind or of furnishing life 
or vitality to other organized living things; 
take away its life and it can do neither. Life 
cannot come from death. 

" The man who eats cooked food subsists 
upon the few cells which escape destruction by 
fire. He is obliged, therefore, to take large 
quantities of food to secure the required 
amount of nourishment. He is surfeited with 
material which his system cannot appropriate — 
dead matter which must be gotten rid of. The 


system cannot expel this waste material fast 
enough, and much of it ferments or decays in 
the stomach or intestines, furnishing food for 
the germs and bacilli which daily enter the sys- 

" The raw-food diet prolongs life. Uric acid 
is now recognized as one of the chief causes of 
old age. This poison is present to a greater or 
less extent in all persons who eat devitalized 
food, and the accumulation increases with the 
age of such persons. Another cause of sensi- 
bility is the presence of an oversupply of 
earthy salts or mineral matter in the blood and 
bones, this is also being produced by the eating 
of emasculated or lifeless food. These foreign 
substances ossify the bones and obstruct the 
blood-vessels, interfering with the exercise of 
vital functions and diminishing the vitality 
more and more. 

" By natural dieting these calcareous depos- 
its, uric acid and other poisons, are absorbed 
or dissolved and eliminated, and their further 
accumulation prevented. Thus juvenility is 
retained and ' old age ' warded off." 



To give any comprehensive information of 
value in reference to cooking would require a 
book in itself. But, I would like to call atten- 
tion to the usual inclination to cook every ar- 
ticle of food until a large portion of its nour- 
ishing, life-giving qualities are actually deor- 
ganized and destroyed. Now, no deorganized 
element can be used as a food. All foods for 
men and animals must come from either animal 
or vegetable life. For instance, a grain of wheat 
furnishes all the elements necessary to feed the 
body. A chemist may mix the exact chemical 
elements, in the same proportion, contained in 
this grain of wheat, but his mixture would be 
valueless as food. 

Excessive cooking, also, so softens the food 
that it is swallowed without mastication, and 
the injurious effects of such a practice has been 
described at length in a previous chapter. A 


food should be cooked only so long as is neces- 
sary to bring out its richest flavor. It should 
never be allowed to assume the consistency of 
mush. Foods of this character are of little 
value to nourish the body, as they are hurriedly 
bolted, and but a small proportion is ever taken 
up by the absorbent glands as it passes through 
the alimentary canal. I am aware that almost 
every one desires his food so tender that it will 
" melt in his mouth/' but, unfortunately for 
those who always insist on eating such mushy 
foods, teeth were made to use, and not only 
does the retainment of teeth depend upon the 
amount of service they get, but the general 
health depends almost to an equal extent, upon 
their use. Bad teeth — bad health. They are 
nearly always companions. Use your teeth 
properly and you preserve not only the teeth, 
but the body as well. 

There is but little, if any, danger in eating 
foods not sufficiently cooked, provided the ne- 
cessity for thorough mastication is not over- 
looked. For, mastication, if sufficiently pro- 
longed, can actually be made to take the place 


of cooking. The changes that take place in food 
during the process of prolonged mastication are 
very similar to those brought about bv cook- 

Another grave fault in cooking is the habit 
of boiling out all the flavor of vegetables in the 
process. When cooking vegetables only use 
sufficient water to avoid burning; never so 
much that it will be necessary to pour off a 
quantity when the food is ready to serve. With 
this water that is poured off, usually goes not 
only the best flavor of the food, but the vege- 
table salts also. These saline elements that are 
a part of all vegetable life, are usually absorbed, 
or dissolved in this liquid, and a much larger 
quantity of mineral salts — which many hygien- 
ists claim cannot become a part of the body, — 
are required to give the food the proper flavor. 

Fried foods, too, are almost universally con- 
demned by hygienic experts, and though the 
theory on which they base their conclusions 
appears sound, I have never in my experience 
found that wholesome foods, when fried, were 
any more difficult to digest than when cooked 


in other ways. Of course, batter-cakes, and 
foods of that character are not fit for food, and 
even a dog would not eat them, if made with 
white flour, as is usual. Batter-cakes can, how- 
ever, be made from graham or whole wheat 
flour, and such are quite satisfactory as foodj 

High seasoning, and elaborate combinations 
of foods are to be condemned. Every means 
should be adopted to bring out the natural 
flavor of the food, but it is not at all infre- 
quent to find different articles of food so dis- 
guised by seasoning that its character is diffi- 
cult to determine. Such a practice is of course, 
injurious; for, as mentioned in a previous 
chapter, the appetite cannot be depended upon 
to indicate the proper quantity, when benumbed 
by pepper and other stimulating seasoning. 

The importance of good cooking can hardly 
be overestimated, and it is usually considered 
of about the least importance of anything in 
life; for, it is often left to the ignorant and 
unskilful servants, who no doubt swell the in- 
come of medical men quite materially by the 
influence of their dishes upon the household. 


" A poor cook in a family is a worse enemy 
to the health, the comfort, and even the morals 
of the household, than would be a swamp gen- 
erating* malaria a half-mile away, a cesspool 
fever-nest at the back door, small-pox across 
the street, or a Chinese Joss house in the next 
block."— /. H. Kellogg, M.D. 



There are numerous preparations on the 
market that are advertised as health foods, and 
claims of the most extravagant character in 
reference to their nourishing, strength-giving 
qualities, are made by many of their manufac- 
turers. Undoubtedly some of these foods de- 
serve commendation, but according to the state- 
ments of the manufacturers, the principal value 
of the great majority lies in the ease with which 
they may be digested. They claim that the 
process of preparing these foods has done a part 
of the work of digestion, that the nourishment 
which they contain is more easily appropriated 
by the absorbent glands because of these special 

The various organs of digestion were made 
to perform their particular office, and digestion 
can no more be strengthened by these so-called 
" health foods," that are usually cooked until 


a large part of the life-giving qualities are 
destroyed, than a weak arm can be strength- 
ened by carefully avoiding every opportunity 
to use it. As a rule the less preparation that 
these foods have undergone the better they are 
as foods. In fact, if you were to take the whole 
grain of most any one of the cereals such as 
wheat, corn, rye, oats, etc., and grind into a 
flour for bread or break up like cracked wheat 
for a breakfast food, they would be far superior 
to the average '-■ health food w in nourishing 
and general strengthening qualities. Man may 
try ever so hard to improve upon Nature, but 
there is where his efforts will always be marked 
by failure. The more simple the method in 
preparing food, the more valuable it will be as 
food. Of course, simple food of this char- 
acter is not as appetizing when first placed in 
? the mouth, as when highly seasoned, or put 
through a prolonged cooking process; but, if 
mastication is properly done, — that is, contin- 
ued for a sufficient length of time, — the deli- 
cacy of the flavor at the conclusion of mastica- 
tion, when the food is ready to swallow, will 


be far superior to that which can be obtained 
from the same food by high seasoning or pro- 
longed cooking. Furthermore, such a condition 
of the appetite where it depends upon this char- 
acter of food is not normal, and it can not al- 
ways be depended upon to indicate when suffi- 
cient has been eaten. At any rate, the degree of 
enjoyment that can be secured from any food 
substance depends altogether upon comparison, 
and upon how hungry one may be. You may 
sit down to the most sumptuous meal that ever 
man tasted, and it will not be enjoyed if the 
appetite is lacking, but if sufficiently hungry 
a meal of raw turnips would taste like " food 
for the gods." 

There are some digestive ailments where 
these partly digested " health foods " may be 
of value as a temporary aid, but they should 
never be depended upon as a permanent diet. 
Where this is done the result in nearly every 
case will be far from satisfactory. If the 
stomach is weak and unable to digest more 
hardy foods, let it rest for a time and it will 
soon accumulate enough strength to digest 


whatever is needed to nourish the body. The 
only true health foods are those furnished by 
Nature, and if you adhere to them in all their 
natural simplicity, and refrain from eating 
beyond your power to digest, there will be no 
occasion for any one to search for other means 
of nourishment. 



Food is used to repair the waste and worn- 
out elements of the body. The occupation to a 
very great extent influences the character of 
these needed elements, and though the food we 
eat should be determined first by the normal ap- 
petite, a diet rich in the elements mostly needed 
to perform the daily work should always be 
supplied. One who works hard at manual la- 
bor all day will require far more of the muscle- 
making, and also of the heating foods than a 
brain worker. The heating foods are the 
source of all power in the body, just the same 
as fire is the source of power in an engine, and 
the nitrogenous, muscle-making foods repair 
the waste of the muscles which furnish the 
means by which these heating foods produce 
their results. Neither would be capable of ac- 
complishing anything without the aid of the 
other, no more than would an engine if not in- 


fluenced by heat under its boiler. One would 
starve to death with just as much certainty and 
just as speedily, and in some cases more speed- 
ily, if furnished exclusively with foods contain-: 
ing only one of these elements, as he would ifi 
totally fasting. 

If no food is taken the body feeds upon itself 
until the skeleton condition is produced and 
the elements are supplied in proper proportion, 
but Nature has made no provision for properly 
nourishing a body fed on a partial food, for the 
reason that there are no partial foods in Na- 
ture. Partial foods are all man-made. Though 
the chemical constituents of foods furnished by 
Nature vary quite widely, there are none that do 
not contain a certain amount of every necessary 
element, enough at least to sustain life if such 
a necessity occurred. If being fed on a partial 
food the body does not seem able to find within 
itself the element not furnished in the food, 
and in many cases under such conditions death 
w©uld ensue as quickly as when totally 

One eminent authority maintains that a brain 


worker needs more food than the muscle work- 
er or manual laborer. Such conclusions would 
be difficult to verify. It is well known that 
laborers eat and can digest far more than the 
brain worker, and in consideration of the fact 
that a manual worker keeps in active use the 
three-fourths of his body represented by his 
muscular system, while the brain worker uses 
only that small portion represented by his 
brains, it is difficult to see how the brain worker 
would call for as much energy or break down 
as much tissue as the muscle worker. 

The brain worker's principal needs are fat- 
tening foods to keep up the heat of the body, and 
to furnish the needed mental energy, and mus- 
cle-making nitrogenous foods to repair or 
replace the worn-out brain cells and furnish the 
digestive fluid. The manual worker's principal 
needs are fattening foods to maintain the heat 
of the body and to furnish the needed muscular 
energy, and a large amount of muscle-making 
foods to repair the waste of the active muscular 
system and to furnish the digestive fluids. 
Therefore it can be readily seen that the manual 


worker's food should contain a larger percent- 
age of muscle-making foods than that of the 
brain worker, and as he is undoubtedly exert- 
ing more energy than the brain worker he con- 
sequently requires a larger supply of fattening 
foods though the appetite is the only guide as 
to quantity. In fact the appetite of both the 
brain and manual worker, if made normal, will 
always clearly indicate which foods are mostly 
needed to nourish the body. 

It is the deficiency of certain elements in the 
fluids of the body that create an appetite and 
the foods that supply these elements the most 
liberally are naturally enjoyed the most, if the 
normal appetite has not been dulled by poison- 
ous liquors or gourmandizing. 

Such foods as peas, beans, lentils and lean 
meats would furnish the muscle worker with the 
elements needed to nourish his body and re- 
pair the waste. While rice, potatoes, whole 
wheat bread and foods of like nature would be 
more applicable to the brain worker's needs. 

Though a long list of tables might easily be 
used here to illustrate quality and character of 


foods needed by different individuals under dif- 
ferent circumstances, they would be of but 
slight and perhaps of no value to the average 
reader in determining his own daily needs. 

As stated before, in a previous chapter, food 
is of no value, regardless of how nourishing it 
may be, unless it can be eaten with appetite. 
Therefore the normal appetite is the guide that 
can be depended upon in all the varying condi- 
tions, both as to elements and as to the quan- 
tity needed. 

Each reader should carefully study the 
chemical analysis of various foods and should 
see that his table is supplied with a variety of 
those foods which he likes and which contain 
a liberal supply of the elements that are needed 
to nourish his body. 

If this duty is performed his appetite " will 
do the rest." He can then simply eat what he 
likes best, and can eat until this appetite is sat- 
isfied — not all he can. 

If the appetite is not normal, if it does not 
dictate clearly as to character and quality of 
food needed, there is but one remedy and that 


is to fast until it designates by an unmistaka- 
ble desire just exactly what is needed. That is 
the only infallible means of developing a nor- 
mal appetite, and after having taken the trouble 
to develop this normal appetite, you should 
keep it normal by abstaining from liquors and 
other stimulants, and also avoid overeating, or 
eating without appetite as you would a poison. 



The needs of the body vary greatly in differ- 
ent temperatures. In the far north all carbo- 
naceous foods, fats, etc., are greatly relished, 
while in torrid countries, fruits, vegetables, and 
lighter foods are more in demand. The most 
delectable morsel to a young Esquimaux is an 
ordinary tallow candle. He will eat it with 
joy the most intense. It is to him like candy 
to the ordinary child. This difference in 
taste is simply evidence of the varying needs 
of the body under different climatic conditions. 
Inhabitants of cold countries need large quan- 
tities of fattening food to maintain the heat of 
the body; while in the torrid zone, where the 
temperature of the air is nearly equal to the 
temperature of the body, the only use for fat- 
tening foods is to supply the energy that may 
be needed in play or work. It would be well, 
therefore, for those who reside in the temperate 


zones, where the temperatures of the different 
seasons vary sometimes more than a hundred 
degrees Fahrenheit, to give some attention to 
the necessity for changing the diet with the 
different seasons. 

Many apparently intelligent persons eat ex- 
actly the same articles of diet throughout the 
entire year. The necessity for changing with 
temperature never seems to be fully realized. 
Of course, where there is always a large va- 
riety of foods to choose from no particular 
suffering is entailed if the appetite is entirely 
normal, but if the needs of the body, required 
in the different seasons, were understood and 
supplied, excessive cold or excessive warmth 
would produce no discomfort worthy of notice. 

Not so much suffering is entailed in winter 
because of this ignorance as in summer. Dur- 
ing cold weather, if one is exposed to the cold, 
very much, the appetite simply demands more 
carbonaceous foods, and more is eaten. But 
during the intense heat of the summer, the ap- 
petite invariably falls far below par, and the 
average person sees in this a sign of coming 


weakness; and, instead of obeying the plain 
dictates of instinct, he or she usually searches 
for some means of goading the appetite up to 
the usual demands, and vastly increases the 
suffering, not only from the heat, but often 
from other troubles more serious, all caused by 
this extra nourishment that the digestive or- 
gans cannot properly appropriate. 

The diet in warm weather should always be 
extremely light, unless one is performing hard 
manual work. It should consist mostly of 
bread, salads, vegetables and fruit. It would 
be far better to avoid meat, though the lighter 
meats, such as chicken and fish are not so ob- 
jectionable as beef, mutton, etc. One full meal 
each day should be sufficient for summer, at 
least, though if it is impossible to confine your 
self to this let the other meal or meals consist 
of light lunches, and the lighter the better. 

The importance of retaining the keenness 
and acuteness of taste is nowhere more fittingly 
emphasized than by the fickleness of the appe- 
tite as influenced by temperature. The needs of 
the body arejplainly indicated by this sense, and 


if it is acquired and retained in all its delicacy 
and acuteness, the food mostly need in all 
conditions of heat or cold will be plainly indi- 

Meats and all food rich in fats and starch 
can be more easily assimilated in the winter 
than during the summer. There is not only an 
increased demand for fattening foods to fur- 
nish heat for the body, but usually one expends 
more energy, and this consumes increased 
quantities of these same food elements, and, in 
addition, requires an increase in the elements 
that supply the waste of the muscular tissue. 



AlcoW in any form is not allowable if the 
diet is to lv ; confined to those foods that build 
strength. It may stimulate, and does, un- 
questionably j at times buoy one with a feeling 
of false strength, but true strength and en- 
durance — the power to continue on and on for 
any length of time — can never be gained unless 
alcoholic liquors be avoided absolutely. On 
one occasion I heyjrd the following excuse for 
the use of alcohol : " For a number of years I 
was a sufferer froro digestive troubles, I tried 
everything without benefit. I was in misery 
half the time. Finally I was advised to make 
a habit of drinking beer or wine at my meals, 
and whenever I had that uncomfortable feel- 
ing in the region of the stomach I followed this 
advice and it cured me of my troubles." This 
man was plainly suffering from overeating. 
His digestive organs weie continually called 


upon to work beyond their need or capacity. 
The use of alcoholic drinks under such cir- 
cumstances will remedy such troubles tempo- 
rarily for the organs make every possible effort 
to rid themselves of alcohol immediately upon 
its introduction into the stomach, and the un- 
digested food that may be there is naturally 
hurried along because of these extraordinary 
efforts. If one cannot restrain his appetite, if 
he will persist in eating more than his stom- 
ach can digest, it is really a question whether 
he is not the gainer for the time being by mod- 
erate indulgence in mild alcoholic stimulation 
to help force the food along, for overeating is 
by far the greater sin of the two, it kills 
twenty-five where alcohol kills one person, and 
its victims can be found in every household. 

'The aristocratic toper, who wishes to 
give an air of respectability to his vice, will 
claim that alcohol is a food. He will cite, in 
proof, instances in which persons have lived 
for weeks by the aid of no other nutriment, 
taking nothing but alcohol and water. This 
semblance of argument scarcely needs expo- 


sure; for the most that can be claimed is that 
it proves merely that persons have lived sev- 
eral weeks while taking only alcohol and wa- 
ter. The fact that individuals have in several 
instances been known to live from thirty to 
sixty days while taking only water, shows con- 
clusively that those persons who lived a shorter 
time on brandy and water lived in spite of the 
alcohol instead of by the aid of it. A conclusive 
evidence that alcohol is not a food is found in 
the fact that when taken into the system it un- 
dergoes no change. It is alcohol in the brain, 
in the liver, in all the tissues, and alcohol in the 
breath, in the perspiration, and in all the ex- 
cretions. In short, alcohol is not used in the 
body, but leaves it, as it enters, a rank poison. 
I can no more accept them as food than I can 
chloroform or ether. In experiments made by 
the writer and reported in a paper read before 
the American Medical Temperance Associa- 
tion, it was shown that the total strength of 
a healthy young man was diminished 33V3 P^ r 
cent, as the result of taking four ounces of 
whisky. The total falling off was diminished 


in a notable degree. It was noticed that the 
loss of strength in the legs was much greater 
in proportion than in other parts of the body. ,, 
— /. H. Kellogg, M.D. 

I have never during my entire life had an oc- 
casion to use alcohol and I never expect to 
have. It is a stimulant and a poison. No one 
can gain permanent strength from it. It re- 
tards the elimination of waste matter from the 
body, and the tissues are often filled with im- 
purities that are liable at any time to become 
manifested in some virulent disease. 

" It is assumed by most persons that alco- 
hol gives strength, and we hear feeble persons 
saying daily that they are being ' kept up by 
stimulants/ This means actually that they are 
being kept down ; but the sensation they derive 
from the immediate action of the stimulant de- 
ceives them and leads them to attribute passing 
good to what, in the large majority of cases, 
is persistent evil. The evidence is all perfect 
that alcohol gives no potential power to brain 
or muscle. During the first stage of its action 
it may enable a wearied or feeble organism to 


do brisk work for a short time; it may make 
the mind briefly brilliant; it may excite mus- 
cles to quick action; but, it does nothing sub- 
stantially, and fills up nothing it has destroyed, 
as it leads to destruction. A fire makes a bril- 
liant sight, but leaves a desolation. It is the 
same with alcohol/ ' — Dr. Richardson. 

It dulls the keen sensitiveness of the nerv- 
ous system. The statement is often made that 
alcohol brings out a man's animal nature, but 
they really mean that it brings out all his low- 
est tendencies, for no lower animal under any 
circumstances, could become so depraved as 
one who is under the influence of the poison. 
A reeling, drunken fool, is about the most dis- 
gusting object that the human mind can pos- 
sibly conceive. A hog becomes a decent, clean 
animal when compared to such vile specimens 
of humanity. 

Prof. Janeway, M.D., professor of materia 
medica in Bellevue Medical College, stated in 
a lecture before his class that alcohol does not 
assist those who use it to endure cold. In 
proof of the assertion, he rdated the following 


incident, which was given to him by the first 
gentleman mentioned in the account : " A gen- 
tleman was appointed by the government to 
go on a survey in the Eastern States in the 
depth of a severe winter. He chose for his 
assistants men who were total abstainers. At 
the same time, another party set out upon the 
same business, the members of which were ad- 
dicted to the use of whisky. Only one of the 
first party gave out, while nearly every one of 
the whisky drinkers succumbed to the influence 
of cold." 

Every human being admires strength and 
desires to acquire all he can and when this one 
fact is considered it becomes extremely difficult 
to understand how any one can continue to 
burn out his internal organs with these liquid 
poisons. It has been proven conclusively again 
and again that alcohol of all kinds lessens the 
muscular vigor. Did you ever hear of an ath- 
lete training for a contest with alcohol of any 
kind as a part of his diet ? Even the most ig- 
norant know enough to avoid it absolutely 
when they desire to obtain the highest degree 


of physical health. A man who drinks liquors 
is only a part of man. He goes through the 
world not only with his brain clouded and be- 
numbed, but his every physical function is 
weakened and blunted. He misses entirely the 
complete powers that might easily have been 

" Close upon the derangement of the stom- 
ach, which is certain to come sooner or later 
with all drinkers, follows nearly every other 
functional disease possible to the human sys- 
tem. Every organ is disturbed. The whole 
vital machinery is deranged. Strange noises 
are heard in the head occasioned by the rush- 
ing of the hot torrent of poisoned blood 
through the distended blood-vessels of the head, 
which pass near the ear. Black spots and cob- 
web appearances annoy the sight. Alcoholic 
amaurosis or amblyopia comes on, and sight 
becomes impaired; sometimes blindness fol- 
lows. The dilated blood-vessels of the skin 
bec©me permanently enlarged, especially in the 
face and nose, and the drinker gets a rum blos- 
som. Skin diseases of various sorts are likely 


to appear, particularly eczema of the fingers or 
toes, or on the shins. An unquenchable thirst 
seems to be ever consuming the blood, and 
nothing but alcohol will even temporarily as- 
sauge the desire for drink. Notwithstanding, 
large quantities of fluids will be taken, often 
amounting to several quarts a day, which over- 
work the excreting organs. The liver and kid- 
neys are disturbed in their function, one day 
being almost totally inactive through conges- 
tion, and the next rallying to their work and 
doing double duty. Every organ feels the ef- 
fect of the abuse through indulgence in alco- 
hol, and no function, through long continuance 
of the disturbance, induces tissue change. The 
imperfectly repaired organs suffer more and 
more in structure until the most extensive and 
disastrous changes have taken place. Dr. Wil- 
lard Packer of New York shows from statis- 
tics that for every ten temperate persons who 
die between the ages of twenty-one and thirty, 
fifty-one intemperate persons die. Notwith- 
standing the constant protest of both moderate 
and immoderate drinkers that alcohol does not 


harm them, that it is a necessary stimulus, a 
preventive of fevers, colds, consumption, etc., 
and the assertion of certain scientists that it is 
a conservative agent, preventing waste and so 
prolonging Mfe, the distinguished English 
actuary, Mr. Neison, has shown from statis- 
tical data which cannot be controverted, that 
while the temperate man has at twenty years 
of age an average chance of living forty-four 
and one-fifth years, the drinking man has a 
prospect of only fifteen and one-half years 
of life. At thirty years of age the temperate 
man may expect to live thirty-six and one-half 
years, while the dram drinker will be pretty 
certain to die in less than fourteen years. 

" When mingled with the blood, alcohol 
destroys the blood-corpuscles, increases the 
proportion of fat, renders the blood less capa- 
ble of passing readily through the capillaries, 
coagulates the fibrine, and injures the nutrient 
elements of the plasma of the blood. When a 
considerable quantity of alcohol is taken, the 
distinction between venous and arterial blood 
is almost destroyed, all the blood assuming- a 


dark hue. It was thus that the English no- 
bility, through habits of dissipation, became 
distinguished for their blue blood, which was 
by them considered an evidence of noble ori- 
gin/'—/. H. Kellogg, M.D. 

James Miller, in his work on Alcohol, says, 
" Alcohol to the working human frame is as 
a pin to the wick of an oil lamp. With this 
you raise the wick from time to time, and each 
raising may be followed by a burst of brighter 
flame; but, while you give neither cotton nor 
oil, the existing supply of both is, through 
such pin-work, all the more speedily con- 
sumed/ ' 

Although you can point to men who have 
made a success of life notwithstanding their 
regular indulgence in the liquor habit, such 
men could have risen to far greater height, 
could have accomplished far more, had they 
not been handicapped by such false stimulation. 

And you can also point to men who can only 
do their best, most brilliant work when partly 
under the influence of a stimulant, but this 
©nly proves how much the habit has enslaved 


them. The same inspiration, made many times 
more keen and clear could be produced by nor- 
mal conditions, by creating that feeling of su- 
perb health which awakes every nerve to the 
full realization of the joy of life and health. 



Unquestionably, the habit of drinking at 
meals should be most severely condemned. If 
the food is being properly masticated there is 
never desire for liquid of any kind. It is only 
when food is hurriedly bolted that such a desire 
is manifested. A most pernicious and quite 
frequently practised habit, is that of taking a 
morsel of food, chewing it two or three times, 
then taking a swallow^ of coffee or tea to " wash 
it down." No human being can remain healthy 
any length of time if such a habit is regularly 
indulged. The food is not only improperly 
masticated, but it enters the stomach accompa- 
nied and diluted by this pernicious liquid, and 
digestion under these conditions is naturally 
carried on iri a very unsatisfactory manner. 
How such persons are able to maintain even 
an occasional semblance of health is beyond 
the comprehension of the writer. 


It is all right to drink to satisfy an actual 
craving — to quench thirst — but never under 
any circumstances can the habit of drinking to 
"Wash down" improperly masticated food be 
excused. It outrages every natural instinct, ev- 
ery function of the alimentary canal. If you 
are abusing your stomach in this manner it 
should be the first evil to eradicate in your ef- 
forts towards eating for strength. 

One may drink during a meal if an actual 
thirst exists, though many hygienic authori- 
ties even condemn this, as the liquid naturally 
dilutes the gastric juice and may lessen its di- 
gestive power. This is more especially true 
if the drink is cold. Under these circumstances 
the temperature of the contents of the stomach 
is greatly lowered, and the process of diges- 
tion and absorption ceases absolutely until the 
temperature again becomes normal. 

Extremely hot drinks are also baneful in 
their effects. They relax and weaken muscular 
walls of the stomach and also influence ad- 
versely the flow of the gastric juice. Not only 
is this important digestive fluid lessened in 


strength, but the saliva does not flow so freely, 
even during the short period that the food is 
being masticated, when hot drinks are used 

If your appetite is in a condition to thor- 
oughly enjoy a meal, if taste has prepared you 
for the pleasures connected with satisfying a 
strong normal desire for food, there will be no 
necessity for liquids during this meal if you 
masticate every morsel until it has actually 
become a liquid. Under these conditions it is 
usually some time after a meal before any de- 
sire for liquid becomes evident, and if not en- 
gaged in some occupation requiring consider- 
able muscular activity, and if the temperature 
is not so high as to require considerable evap- 
oration to maintain the body at a proper degree 
of coolness, there may be no desire for water 
even then. 



Though tea and coffee are undoubtedly bane- 
ful in their effects, the ice-water habit, now 
almost universal in America, is the cause of 
much physical weakness and disease. True, 
many persons seem to imbibe large quantities 
daily without apparent serious injury, but the 
possession of a modicum of brains should en- 
able any one to clearly see that the introduc- 
tion into the stomach of an ice-cold liquid that 
is from sixty to sixty-eight degrees colder than 
this organ could not have otherwise than a 
weakening influence. 

Here again, with these iced drinks, is the 
evidence of instinct to prove beyond question 
that they were never intended for the human 
stomach. Give a child, for the first time a 
drink of ice-cold water and see its effects. I 
will never forget the first time, to my knowl- 
edge, that I tasted ice water. I had been ac- 


customed to drinking water about the temper- 
ature of well and spring water and. as I was 
quite thirsty at the time, I began to swallow 
this iced water with the same celerity usual 
with other water. Two or three swallows, 
however, were sufficient. It seemed to me at 
that time as though I was actually pouring ice 
down my throat — it seemed to actually par- 
alyze throat and stomach. Of course, in trav- 
elling you have to drink ice water or else 
take a great deal of trouble to secure something 
else, and time and time again when intense 
thirst induced me to drink iced water soon af- 
ter a meal I have actually felt the organs of 
digestion immediately cease their work, and 
a decidedly uncomfortable feeling would re- 
main for some time as a result. 

There is no question as to the desirability 
of cool water. It should be of the temperature 
usually found in wells and springs, but never 
colder. If only the two extremes are fur- 
nished — that is, iced water and the warm wa- 
ter that often flows from the water pipes of a 
city, mix them until of a desired temperature. 


You will be amply repaid in increased health 
for the trouble this may occasion. 

If conditions are such that your water supply 
is too w r arm to furnish a pleasant drink, it can 
usually be cooled to a satisfactory temperature 
by the following method : Fill a vessel of some 
kind with water; wrap a wet cloth around it, 
covering every part of the surface. Now put it 
in some place sheltered from the sun where 
there is air stirring. Be sure that the cloth is 
kept wet. The process of evaporation cools 
the cloth and the water in the vessel gradually 
assumes a similar temperature. 

Much nonsense is often heard about the ne- 
cessity for ice in very warm weather ; but very 
few country homes are supplied with it and the 
^savage inhabitants of torrid countries seem to 
thrive without it. In fact about the only oc- 
casion for the use of ice in summer is to pre- 
serve foods like meats, butter, etc., that should 
become no part of the diet of an intelligent hu- 
man being at this heated season of the year. 




Coffee and tea are supposed by many to con- 
tain nourishing elements, that actually give 
strength to the body. They strengthen just 
as does whisky, beer and other alcoholic bev- 
erages. They are stimulants, pure and simple. 
The only food they contain is the sugar and 
cream that are usually mixed with them to hide 
their real favor. In fact the same natural test 
that can be used for all liquids, or foods, to 
determine their value as a food, can be applied 
to tea and coffee. Every natural wholesome 
food has a pleasant flavor, the very first time 
it is tasted by a child or adult in perfectly nor- 
; mal health, barring occasional peculiarities 
manifested by taste in certain persons. To the 
entirely normal throat and mouth whisky burns 
just as would fire if swallowed, and coffee or 
tea, if the real flavor is not disguised by sugar 
and cream, has a bitter, acrid taste that no 


one could possibly endure the second time if 
it were not for the bad influence of others who 
have acquired the habit. 

" We thoroughly believe that more harm is 
done at the present time by tobacco, tea, and 
coffee, than by all forms of alcoholic drinks 
combined; and we deem it of the greatest im- 
portance that the efforts of temperance work- 
ers, should be turned in this direction." — /. H. 
Kellogg, M.D. 

Many who preach temperance, as applied to 
alcoholic liquors, are as much slaves to the 
coffee or tea habit as others are to the poison- 
ous alcoholic liquors ; and, though tea and cof- 
fee do not manifest their evil effects so plainly, 
many victims of these mild stimulants do them- 
selves as much injury in the end as the alco- 
hol tippler. 

Tea is especially bad as the large amount 
of tannin, a virulent poison, which it contains 
has a peculiarly stimulating, brightening ef- 
fect for a time after its use, though, like the 
alcohol stimulant, the depressing after-effects, 
when the stimulating influence has disappeared, 


are marked. Again, like alcohol the quantity 
used must be gradually increased to secure 
the same effects, thus it is not at all uncommon 
to find some tea topers who have gradually in- 
creased their indulgence until they are drinks 
ing fcur to five cups each meal. The injurious 
effects of such intemperance will soon become 
apparent in every case. Of course, those whose 
vital strength is very great may be able to con- 
tinue the habit for years without any serious 
results, beyond occasional periods of illness, 
but they are paying the price for their indul- 
gence, and gradually, with as much certainty 
as day follows night, the " cup that cheers " 
will become the cup that inebriates. 

Coffee, though not so injurious as tea, con- 
tains poisonous elements that have an unfa- 
vorable influence upon the body if its use is 
long continued. Notice the yellow skin of 
those who have been for a long time addicted 
to the coffee habit. It is often the sole cause 
of biliousness, and troubles of this nature have 
been known to disappear almost immediately 
after the abandonment of the habit. 


" The evil effects of the use of these popular 
beverages have made too evident their injuri- 
ous character to allow of room to doubt their 
deleterious influence, notwithstanding the apol- 
ogies offered for their use by those who are 
accustomed to employ them. 

" By the experiments of Dr. Smith, M. Ga- 
zear and many others it is shown that the con- 
sumption of the body is greater under the in- 
fluence of tea or coffee than at other times, 
since the amount of carbonic acid eliminated 
is greater than natural, the amount of car- 
bonic acid sent out from the lungs being the 
best known measure of the rate of waste of the 
body. The amount of extra waste thus occa- 
sioned is shown by Dr. Smith's experiments 
to be from one-fourth to one-tenth that 
of the whole waste of the body, whence Dr. 
Smith very consistently remarks that it is spe- 
cially adapted to ' those who usually eat too 
much/ This is a tacit confession that at the 
least the use of tea is an expensive and wasteful 

" When taken upon an empty stomach, thes? 


beverages produce, as is well known, serious 
irritation of the digestive organs. When taken 
with the food, impairment of digestion is pro- 
duced in several ways: (a) By taking into the 
stomach too large a quantity of liquid. (&) 
By relaxing the stomach by the use of liquids 
of too high a temperature, by which, also, the 
activity of the gastric juice is impaired, (c) 
By precipitating the pepsin with the tannin 
which they contain. 

" That the use of tea and coffee is a common 
cause of dyspepsia is an observation made by 
all experienced physicians. At the last meet- 
ing of the British Medical Association, an em- 
inent physician from Australia testified that 
dyspepsia from the use of tea and coffee is very 
common in that country. Sir William Robert 
has shown that both tea and coffee, even in 
small proportions, prevent the action of saliva 
upon starch, thus producing one of the most 
common forms of indigestion. The writer has 
demonstrated the correctness of these obser- 
vations, both by experiment and clinically, hav- 
ing recorded a great number of cases in which 


grave disorders of digestion were evidently due 
to the use of tea and coffee. 

" It is well known that whatever excites vital 
action above the normal standard, without sup- 
plying an extra amount of force to support the 
extra expenditure, invariably produces, as a 
secondary result, depression of vital action be- 
low the normal standard, or what is known as 
a reaction. That this is one of the secondary 
effects of the use of strong tea, is well known. 
Tea may be used so weak that the reaction is 
not noticed, but no doubt it is still felt in some 
degree by the organic system, if not by the 
nerves of animal life. This continued alterna- 
tion of excitement and reaction must certainly 
result in injury to the nervous system, increas- 
ing the liability to nervous diseases of a func- 
tional character, such as neuralgia (neurasthe- 
nia), hysteria, etc." — J. H. Kellogg, M.D. 

Both the tea and coffee habits can be easily 
discarded If the victim cares to make the re- 
quired efforts. The principal attraction in both 
tea and coffee lies in the fact that they are 
warm, they increase the temperature of the 


contents of the stomach, and often enable one 
to obtain greater pleasure from eating, and to 
digest their meals with less noticeable signs of 
distress. Though there are some diseased con- 
ditions of the stomach when a hot drink can be 
advantageously recommended it should be 
taken a few minutes before a meal or an hour 
or two afterward. As stated in a previous 
chapter, if eating wholesome foods only, and 
thoroughly masticating them, there should be 
no desire for a drink either during or imme- 
diately after a meal; though, do not forget 
that if an actual, unmistakable thirst exists, I 
believe it is better to partially satisfy it. 

After you have determined that you desire 
to break off from the tea or coffee habit, and 
there is but little use of making any effort 
in this direction unless there is some real se- 
riousness in your desire, begin first by grad- 
ually day by day lessening the strength of the 
decoction and also the quantity. If these in- 
structions are carried out carefully you will 
find yourself entirely free from the habit with- 
out the slightest craving for it in a short time. 


Of course, after the strength of liquid has been 
greatly reduced you can then resort to some 
wholesome warm drink as a substitute. Hot 
water with cream and sugar to taste, is used 
with advantage by many. Gradually, however, 
the necessity for this should disappear and the 
quantity used should gradually grow less until 
you find that it can be discarded altogether. 

Any of these habits, can of course, be 
dropped immediately with greater benefit, 
without this " tapering off ' process, if the 
will is sufficiently strong, though when this is 
done there usually follows digestive and gen- 
eral functional disturbances that often make 
life rather uncomfortable for a few days. 



White bread, the American " staff of life," 
is the greatest humbug ever foisted upon a civ- 
ilized people. " Staff of life/' indeed ! Why, 
it is more like a staff of death. It is composed 
largely of the starchy part of the wheat. It 
is greatly deficient in the constituents essential 
in feeding the muscles, brain and bones. A 
large part of these valuable food elements have 
been removed, with the bran and shorts. But, 
astounding as it may seem to a reasoning hu- 
man being, this article of food is consumed 
from one end of the country to the other, and 
everywhere is looked upon as " the staff of 

" What, in heaven's name, are our public 
schools for? There is, absolutely, no excuse 
for such depraved ignorance. All scientific 
investigators agree as to the inferiority of 
white flour as a food. The teeth fall out, the 


bones soften and the muscles never develop if 
it is depended upon to furnish nourishment for 
the body. 

" The gluten of cereal foods is their nitro- 
genized element, the element on which de- 
pends their life-sustaining value, and this ele- 
ment is, in the white and foolishly fashionable 
flour, almost entirely removed, while the 
starch, the inferior element, is left behind and 
constitutes the entire bulk and inferior nutri- 
ment of such flours. To use flour from which 
the gluten has been removed, is almost crim- 
inal"—Dr. Cutter of Harvard University in 
the American Medical Weekly. 

No wonder some children never grow, and 
are always sick and weak ! When fed on such 
a starvation diet as this nothing else could 
be expected. 

The use of this one article of diet has caused 
thousands to suffer with digestive troubles. It 
is especially favorable to constipation, and is 
frequently the sole cause of this annoying 

A grain of wheat contains the elements n&z- 


essary to feed the body, in almost perfect pro- 
portions, and if foods were made of whole- 
wheat flour the body would be perfectly nour- 
ished in every part. 

Every man who knows anything of foods 
and their properties is fully aware of these 
facts, and why medical men everywhere ignore 
them, in advising their patients is beyond the 
comprehension of the writer. 

Not long ago, an experiment was made with 
dogs. Some were fed on white bread, others 
on Graham or entire wheat bread, and still 
others were given nothing to eat. The dogs 
that were allowed no food lived about as long 
as those fed on white bread, while those fed 
on the entire wheat bread thrived, and were ap- 
parently able to maintain life until the end of 
its natural term. This proves beyond question 
that whoever is striving to subsist on white 
bread is starving a part of his body with al- 
most as much certainty as if he were eating 
nothing at all, and that he will actually die 
about as soon as if fasting. 

it is generally admitted by authorities that 


the outside covering of the wheat grain which 
is removed in the refining process of making 
flour contains, in addition to its valuable nitro- 
genous elements (muscle builders), a large 
amount of waste master which is o-f great 
value, not only in adding bulk to the food, but 
in assisting the peristaltic action of the bow- 
els. Most persons suffering from constipation 
find that the trouble immediately disappears 
when entire wheat bread is substituted for 
white bread. 

The most ignorant athlete usually has intel- 
ligence enough to know that white bread is an 
inferior food, that it will not furnish the ele- 
ments in proper proportion to feed the body, 
and any one who has trained or who has fol- 
lowed an occupation requiring great muscular 
activity, and has had an opportunity to test 
white flour as a food in comparison with whole 
or entire wheat, will also immediately indorse 
this conclusion. 

"Superfine flour is distinctly a modern inven- 
tion. The ancients used unbolted meal alto- 
gether, the present disease-producing devices 


known as bolting machines being then not in 
use. Indeed, many nations at the present day, 
as the Germans, Scandinavians, and, in fact, 
most nations with the exception of the French, 
English, and American nations, still adhere 
substantially to the ancient custom in this re- 
gard. No doubt the hardihood of the native 
German peasant is in great part justly attrib- 
utable to the highly nourishing qualities of his 
1 Black bread/ "—. J. H. Kellogg, M.D. 

I will never forget the first time in my life 
that occasion occurred to prove to my own 
satisfaction by actual personal tests the great 
inferiority of white-flour bread as a food. 
When quite young I concluded that life on a 
farm would strengthen my then greatly weak- 
ened body, and I visited a farming section in 
one of the Western States, and secured a 
" job " as a farm hand, or rather farmer's boy, 
as I was not considered equal in strength to be 
a full-fledged " hand." 

Now, in this particular section the previous 
generation had been mostly " raised " on corn 
bread and bacon, and they felt somewhat above 


such a rough fare, so the ignoramuses substi- 
tuted white for the corn bread. I had a little 
knowledge of food values, even at that early 
age, and if milk had not been plentifully sup- 
plied, am satisfied that I could not have sub- 
sisted on the food furnished. But during this 
particular time I had the opportunity, far from 
pleasant, I can assure the reader, of seeing and 
feeling my muscular strength increase and de- 
crease, as influenced by the diet. As I came 
there for the particular purpose of acquiring 
strength, I had naturally formed a habit of al- 
most daily testing my strength in various ways. 
About once or twice each week, at the noon 
meal, they would have baked beans and corn 
bread, and within an hour after such a meal, 
following several days wherein white bread 
was the principal article of diet, I would ac- 
tually be a third stronger. Not only was I 
greatly increased in strength, as I found by 
actual tests, but my energies seemed to vastly 
increase. While compelled to subsist mostly 
on the white-bread diet I dragged through my 
work — felt listless and half ill all the time. But 


one meal that contained Nature's true nourish- 
ment transformed me into a new being. 

Of course, where fresh meats are furnished 
with white bread, its deficiency is not so greatly 
noticed, as the meats, to a certain extent, sup- 
ply the elements that the white bread lacks. * 

But the most astonishing and incontroverti- 
ble proof of the terrible deficiency of white 
bread as a food was startlingly illustrated by 
those very people in that section. A poorer lot 
of men, physically, I never saw before nor 
since. They had no stamina, vigor, or beauty 
of body. And the women! Why, at 25 they 
would begin to fade ; at 30 they were old. Be- 
fore 30 a majority of them had to be supplied 
with false teeth. 

And why? 

They were practically living an ideal life, 
in pure air, with plenty of exercise, and the 
natural conditions were in every way such that 
they should have produced the highest types 
©f manhood and womanhood, physically. 

The cause of their utter physical ugliness, 
weakness and general inferiority was unques- 


tionably due largely to the diet of white bread, 
and at this present moment I believe that white 
bread, in many parts of this country, is actually 
starving people to death wholesale. They are 
eating plentifully, but the tissues necessary to 
the performance of the vital functions are be- 
ing slowly starved. 

Remember that muscular power is not used 
solely for locomotion and movements that re- 
quire the use of hands, arms, and upper parts 
of the outer muscular system. It is required 
in every digestive and vital action of the body. 
The heart is a muscular organ. The stomach 
is surrounded by muscles that help in the proc- 
ess of digestion. Muscular power is necessary 
even to turn your eyes; therefore when you 
starve your muscles by a white-bread diet, 
every organ or function of the entire body 
suffers in consequence and it would also be well 
not to forget that the same food elements 
which nourish the muscles also constitute the 
principal part of all the important digestive 

The chemical analyses of all foods differ so 


much that it is difficult to form conclusions 
accurately in every detail. In order for my 
readers to see clearly the difference in the an- 
alysis of whole wheat and the ordinary white 
flour, I quote from Dr. Holbrook who gives 
Blythe's authority for table of analyses show- 
ing the difference. It would be well to call the 
attention to the great difference in the muscle- 
making elements contained in different kinds 
of wheat and in wheat grown in different parts 
of the country. This varies from about ten 
to twenty-one per cent. I have taken for 
granted that the w T hole-wheat flour, which has 
been here analyzed and compared with the 
white flour, has been made from the same kind 
of wheat. 

Chemical analysis of whole wheat flour and white flour 
is as follows : 

Entire Ordi- 

Grain nary 

Whole Wheat White 

Flour. Flour. 

Water 14.0 16.5 

Nitrogenous elements feeding muscles 
and brain, and furnish digestive 

juices 21.S 12.0 

Fattening, heating and energy pro- 
ducers &@.g 70.8 

Woody fibers — waste necessary to as- 
sist in digestion 1.7 .... 

Mineral water 1.6 ©.7 



The body, as the reader is no doubt aware, 
is composed of various elements, the exact pro- 
portion of which cannot be determined save by 
a chemical analysis. The bones are composed 
of lime and other mineral matter ; the muscles 
and brain are composed of nitrogenous ele- 
ments, while the fat, which is distributed every- 
where throughout the body, is composed of ele- 
ments carbonaceous in nature. Thus the 
necessity for supplying the exact elements in 
proper proportion to nourish the body can 
readily be realized. Here is where the impor- 
tance of a normal appetite — natural taste — is 
most thoroughly emphasized. That food which 
is enjoyed the most keenly by taste is the most 
needed and, naturally, the most healthful. The 
sense of taste is located at the extreme end of 
the tongue and in the back part of the mouth. 
It is produced by the absorption of the food 


elements that are being masticated. The faster 
absorption takes place, provided the food is 
wholesome and nourishing, the more acute is 
the enjoyment of taste. Absorption is influ- 
enced entirely by the condition of the body. 
When any element or elements are particularly 
needed by the body, the blood is naturally de- 
ficient in those elements ; and those parts of the 
body — the tip of the tongue and back part of 
the mouth — which produce taste — are natu- 
rally able to absorb those particular elements 
needed more quickly than other elements, and 
the result is we always, if in possession of a 
normal appetite, enjoy eating those foods most 
keenly which are the most needed. It will be 
readily noted, therefore, that if your table is 
supplied with the proper variety of food, con- 
taining the various elements necessary for feed- 
ing the body, taste will indicate which food 
element is most needed, by selecting that which 
tastes most delicious. Taste cannot be relied 
on to do this, however, if the foods are so 
highly seasoned as to entirely destroy their 
original flavor. By studying the various 


chemical analyses of foods which follow you 
can secure a fair idea of the value of different 
foods, and thus be able to select those mostly 
needed in your own case, keeping in mind con- 
tinually the dictates of taste in your selection, 
for, however, poor it may be, it is usually far 
better than any other authority that could pos- 
sibly be consulted. 

I am aware that there are some foods that 
taste very good, but which nearly always pro- 
duce baneful effects. They are exceptions to 
all rules, and where foods seem to disagree to 
such an extent they should of course be avoid- 
ed. The manifestation of taste for such a 
food, however, is indubitable evidence that the 
food contains elements needed to nourish the 
body at that time, and other foods containing 
simitar elements should be furnished. 

Take the ravenous appetite for candy 
among some children, for instance. This ap- 
petite furnishes ample evidence that the body 
is not properly nourished in the force-produc- 
ing and heating foods and if such children were 
furnished at the table with a plentiful supply 


of foods such as rice, oats (not oatmeal), and 
honey, served in palatable form, there would 
be but little desire for candy. 

" Experiments upon both animals and hu- 
man beings show that it is of great importance 
that the proportion of elements should be such 
as will best meet the demands of the system, 
especially in the case of the albuminous and 
carbonaceous elements (gluten, albumen, fats, 
starch, and sugar). Many and extended ex- 
periments and observations have shown that 
the proper proportion is about one part of ni- 
trogenous or albuminous elements to seven 
parts of carbonaceous elements. From this it 
will at once appear that most articles of food 
are deficient in one or the other of these classes 
of elements, requiring that they be supple- 
mented by other substances eaten with them. 

"By means of numerous experiments, at the 
expense of numberless dogs, rabbits, pigeons, 
cats, and other animals, it has been clearly 
demonstrated that while the various elements 
mentioned are food elements, they are not in 
themselves food, either when taken alone or 


when artificially mixed. Dogs fed on albumen, 
fibrine, or gelatine — the constitutents of mus- 
cle — died in about a month. The same result 
followed when they were fed on the constitu- 
ents of muscle artificially mixed. A goose fed 
on the white of egg died in twenty-six days. 
A duck fed on butter starved to death in three 
weeks, with the butter exuding from every 
part of its body, its feathers being saturated 
with fat. Dogs fed on oil, gum, and sugar, 
died in four to five weeks. A goose fed on 
gum died in sixteen days; one fed on sugar, 
in twenty-one days; two that had only starch 
lived twenty-four and twenty-seven days. Dogs 
fed on fine flour bread lived but fifty days." — 
/. H. Kellogg, M.D. 

The analyses of the various food-products, 
which I have used, were taken from the bul- 
letins of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. 



Similar elements to those of which the mus- 
cles are composed, also form the cells of the 
brain. Therefore the importance of nitro- 
genous elements in the food is not confined en- 
tirely to manual workers, or those desirous of 
building all the attainable muscular powers — 
it is of almost equal importance to the brain 
worker. All the broken down or decayed tis- 
sues in both brain and muscle must be replaced 
by these nitrogenous elements. A liberal sup- 
ply of these elements is especially essential in 
building muscular tissue. No strength of im- 
portance can be developed unless the impor- 
tance of this is recognized. 

These nitrogenous elements also perform 
really the most important part in the vital 
economy. Though they do not furnish the 
force, they furnish the means through which 
the force is manifested. All the important 


fluids of the body are composed largely of 
nitrogenous elements. The saliva, gastric 
juice, and the bile, pancreatic and intestinal 
juices, which perform such important work in 
the digestive process, are composed mostly of 
nitrogenous elements. 

" The experiments of Dr. Austin Flint upon 
the pedestrian Weston, as well as the experi- 
ments of Prof. Liebig, Subbotin, and many 
other distinguished physiologists, show very 
clearly that the nitrogenous elements are the 
chief supporters of vital activity, muscular and 
nervous effort, etc., and that food can only 
support vital action or give rise to force by 
being assimilated into living tissue."— /. H. 
Kellogg, M.D. 

" The nerves, the muscles and the glands 
are composed of living matter or protoplasm, 
and cannot be built up, or the glands furnish 
their secretions without albuminous matter. 
Every structure in the body in which any form 
of force is manifested is mainly built up of 
these proteids. Muscular tissue is a good ex- 


ample; the brain cells are also examples." — 
Dr. M. L. Holbrook. 

The principal foods that are richest in these 
valuable nitrogenous muscle-making elements 
are beans, peas, lentils, lean meat and eggs, 
though if wheat (the whole grain in bread or 
other food substances), oats and corn are also 
well supplied one will not have starved mus- 

Although lean meats are especially rich in 
nitrogenous elements, they are not by any 
means essential in a muscle-building diet. The 
muscles can unquestionably be developed to 
their highest degree of perfection on a grain, 
fruit and vegetable diet, if the grain, so rich in 
these vital building elements, are furnished in 
palatable forms. Many vigorous farmers in 
our own country, and whole nations of people 
such as the Japanese and natives of India, ex- 
emplify the truth of this statement. 

In the analyses which follow, to all nitrog- 
enous elements I have added the word "mus- 
cle," though it would be well to note that 
all brain-cells and important fluids of the 


body are composed largely of these elements. 
Do not make the mistake of believing that one 
can be made strong by merely eating muscle- 
making foods. The absorption of these muscle- 
making elements requires that a demand first be 
made for them by the use of the voluntary mus- 
cles, therefore if you wish to develop strength, 
you must first develop an appetite for strength- 
ening foods by the vigorous use of your muscu- 
lar system. 

In order to emphasize the particular necessity 
for muscular vigor in the performance of the 
digestive processes, I would call your attention 
to some comments by a well known authority 
on the muscular processes of the organs of 
digestion : 

" Muscular action masticates the food — by 
the aid of the passive accessory organs, the 
teeth — and mingles with it the saliva. Muscu- 
lar contraction draws the alimentary bolus 
from the mouth down into the stomach. Here, 
by the action of the muscles, it is churned up 
with the gastric juice, and finally squeezed 
through the pylorus into the small intestine, 


where, by the aid of muscles, it is mixed with 
the bile and the pancreatic and intestinal 
juices, and is moved along, constantly coming 
in contact with fresh secreting and absorbing 
surfaces, until its digestion is complete. Even 
absorption is greatly aided by this muscular 
action, as the circulation in the absorbing parts 
is thereby quickened, so that larger quantities 
of fluid are taken up." — /. H. Kellogg, M.D. 



The carbonaceous foods furnish the elements 
that produce fat. The human body, and in 
fact the bodies of all animals, are from one 
standpoint only storage batteries. In an elec- 
tric battery the power stored is electricity. The 
element of power that can be stored in the body 
is fat. Fat is to an animal body, human or 
otherwise, what electricity is to a storage bat- 
tery. It is nothing more than stored up power. 
A person overburdened with fat has no excuse 
for being hungry for foods of a fattening na- 
ture. In fact it is really doubtful if he has any 
excuse for being hungry at all, for when a 
large amount of fat has accumulated, in nearly 
every case such a person could fast for several 
weeks with actual benefit to body and mind. 
The bear accumulates enough fat in the sum- 
mer to enable him to go without food all win- 
ter, and any animal by acquiring similar fast- 


ing habits could perform similar feats of fast- 

All fattening foods produce energy and 
maintain the body at a proper temperature. 
Whenever these foods are supplied beyond the 
actual needs of the body, under perfectly nor- 
mal conditions, a large amount of the surplus 
is deposited in the form of fat. A certain 
amount of fat is healthful and is useful to 
round out to greater symmetry all parts of the 
body, but when it is allowed to accumulate 
beyond this, it produces in time a weakened 
condition that causes the body to become easy 
prey for all sorts of diseases. Every effort of 
brain or muscle consumes a certain amount of 
fat in the blood. 

Under the head of "Starch, Fat, Etc.," I 
have included with fat, all starch, sugar, and 
food elements of this character. As I consider 
that the fiber performs an important purpose 
in assisting towards the proper digestion of 
foods I have given a little more importance to 
this particular element than have the Agricul- 
ture Department in the original analyses. 



The importance of mineral matter which 
has been vitalized by vegetable life, in our food, 
is about equal to the other elements, 

" The principle was established long ago 
that animals cannot organize or vitalize mat- 
ter, but simply possess the power to appropriate 
nourishment in the form of a substance which 
has already been vitalized by the vegetable 
kingdom. ,, — /. H. Kellogg, M.D. 

But a very small percentage of these ele- 
ments are required, as will be noted by the an- 
alysis of wheat, the perfect food; but the ef- 
fect of this small amount upon the human body 
seems to be of very great importance, as will 
be noted by a perusal of the following : 

"Professor Forster of Miinchen has made 
a large number of experiments to discover the 
importance of mineral matter in our food. Two 
pigeons were taken for one experiment and fed 


on food containing every other requisite : al- 
bumen, carbohydrates, etc., but entirely freed 
from all mineral matter. These pigeons took 
their food regularly, but soon lost all liveli- 
ness and sat dumb and motionless on the bars 
of their cages. After the tenth day they ate 
but little and lost in flesh. On the twenty- 
fourth day one of them had a fit, and both 
refused to eat. He then fed them by compul- 
sion. One died on the twenty-sixth day by a 
return of the fit, and the other lived on to the 
thirty-first day, when it also had a fit from 
which it did not recover. An examination of 
the bodies of the pigeons revealed no traces of 
any disturbance of digestion. 

"He then took a dog and fed him in the 
same manner. He soon showed signs of wear- 
iness, lay sad and dull in his corner, had sudden 
fits as of madness, became weak and uncertain 
in his motions, trembled and showed signs of 
nervousness, became weaker and weaker till 
he could scarcely crawl, and still there was no 
disturbance in the digestion of his food. 

"Another pigeon was taken and fed on food 


free from mineral matter by compulsion. It 
died in thirteen days, and yet an examination 
of its body showed that it had been well nour- 
ished and the organs were sound. The food had 
Apparently been well digested. The absence of 
mineral matter had not prevented digestion' 
until after several days, but had caused death. 
The animals had all shown muscular weakness 
and trembling, and in one case a sort of par- 
alysis, as if the spinal cord and brain had been 
affected. The nervous system suffered most; 
indeed it was apparent that the nervous weak- 
ness was caused by the absence of mineral 
salts, and we must from this look on them as 
necessary to excite and enliven the brain and 
nerves, and especially promote nutrition and se- 
cretion. We know that living a long time on 
pickled meat, salt pork or corned beef causes 
a sort of scurvy which is only cured by the use 
of fresh vegetables and fruit. Now, the brine 
used to preserve the flesh dissolves a consider- 
able part of the mineral constituents of the 
meat which the fresh vegetables replace. 

" Dr. Forester's investigations gave one 


other result He found that the animals fed 
by compulsion on food freed from its mineral 
matter died sooner than those not fed at all. 
The explanations he gives for this is, that if no 
food is given the body is nourished on itself, 
and, consequently, a supply of mineral matter 
is obtained from the decomposed flesh of the 
body; but when nourished on food free from 
salts there is no demand from the body for al- 
bumen and carbohydrates, and so no mineral 
matter is received from its decomposition." 
—Dr. M. L. Holbrook. 



Nitrogenous Starch, 

Analyses. Water. Mineral. (Muscle). Fiber. Fat, etc. 

Entire Grain.. 10.4 1.9 12.5 1.8 73.4 

Cracked 10.1 1.6 n.i 1.7 75.5 

Farina 10.9 .4 11.0 .4 77.3 

Flaked 8.7 2.2 13.4 1.8 73.9 

Germs 10.4 1.1 10.5 .9 77.1 

Glutens 8.9 1.2 13.6 1.3 75.0 

Shredded 8.1 2.1 10.5 1.7 yy.6 

Maccaroni 10.3 1.3 13.4 .. 75.0 

Noodles 10.7 1.0 11. 7 .4 76.2 

Spaghetti 10.6 .6 12.1 .4 76.3 

Vermicelli ...11.0 4.1 10.9 .. 74.0 

Wheat is considered one of the most valua- 
ble food elements which is now used. It is 
admitted by hygienists everywhere to con- 
lain in almost perfect proportion the exact ele- 
ments needed to nourish the body under ordi- 
nary circumstances. In a previous chapter I 
have called attention to the deficiency of white 
flour as a food, but the whole grain, no matter 
how prepared, is a food that can be highly 
commended. The outer cover, which is noth- 


ing more than waste product, is a valuable 
stimulant to the bowels, and if the food ele- 
ments into which wheat enters are always al- 
lowed to include this outer covering, the suf- 
fering from digestive troubles would materially 
lessen in a short time. Hot bread made from 
white flour is about the most indigestible and 
non-nutritious substance one can possibly eat. 
It is composed largely of starch, and even those 

elements which are essential to the nourish- 


ment of the body cannot be properly liquefied; 
because of the tendency of this starchy sub-i 
stance to form into a ball and thus resist the> 
influence of the digestive juices. The habit of 
eating hot biscuit, and other hot breads made 
from white flour, has unquestionably caused 
thousands to fill premature graves. They con- 
tinue such a diet until a diseased condition has 
been produced, and then proceed to take poison- 
ous drugs to cure the disease. It is really re- 
markable how so many people succeed in exist- 
ing so long as they do under the abnormal 
influences of such an unnatural diet. Food 
into which white flour enters can be made far 


more palatable by substituting a high grade 
of whole-wheat flour, and under these circum- 
stances it would become a most nourishing 
food, and if the reader is desirous of building 
health, the very first steps that should be taken 
for the accomplishment of this object should 
be the use of flour made of the whole grain of 
wheat in all foods in which white flour is 
needed. The influence of a change of this char- 
acter will produce upon health and strength will 
be noticed almost immediately. Not only will 
the body be more thoroughly nourished, but 
the work of digestion will be carried on more 
perfectly, and there will be but little liability 
of suffering from that common complaint, con- 



Nitrogenous Starch, 

Water. Mineral. (Muscle). Fiber. Fat, etc. 


Barley 10.9 2.4 


Flour 13.6 .9 

Corn 10.9 1.5 

Ceraline 10.3 .7 

Hominy 11.8 .3 

Parched Corn. 5.2 2.6 

Oats, Rolled.. 7.8 1.9 

Pop Corn 10.3 .7 

Rice 12.4 .4 

Rye 11.6 1.9 
























Next to wheat, oats are probably the most 
valuable food of this character. They are very 
rich in nitrogenous substances, and also contain 
large quantities of fat which makes them very 
valuable as a food for producing energy and 
adding fatty tissue. Though oats are a valua- 
ble food on account of their richness, they re- 
quire a great deal of mastication in order to be 
properly digested, and the use of this food in 
the form of oatmeal — which is swallowed with 


little or no chewing — cannot be commended; 
in fact oatmeal, on account of its being eaten 
in the form of mush, makes a very poor food, 
and by far the larger quantity of this food 
passes through the body without being di- 

Rolled oats, or the whole oat grain, with the 
straw-like covering removed, furnishes a very 
valuable food if not overcooked and if thor- 
oughly masticated. It requires considerable 
mastication to thoroughly bring these food 
elements into a liquid, but when this is done 
they furnish a food very valuable in nourish- 
ment for every part of the body. Persons who 
are inclined to be thin, if they will use some 
oat-food product which is appetizing, they will 
very often find that this one change in their 
diet will produce an increase in weight. 

Corn will also be found a very valuable food. 
Much of our stock on farms throughout the 
country receive but little else than this one 
article and are usually able to thrive and grow 
fat upon it. 

Corn is very valuable as a fattening food, 


and is of course a great energy producer. Corn 
can be eaten in the form of bread and hominy 
with satisfactory results, and corn cakes are 
not by any means as objectionable as the white 
flour product that often adheres to your stom- 
ach like glue. Cornmeal mush cannot, how- 
ever, be recommended. It is of course imper- 
fectly cooked and imperfectly masticated, and 
under these circumstances the entire work of 
digestion must be performed by the stomach 
and intestines. If mush is subjected to the 
same mastication that is required for crackers 
and foods of this dry character, it would be 
digested with ease, but as usually eaten its 
nourishing qualities are mostly lost. 

Though rice is largely used in this country, 
the amount is comparatively insignificant as 
compared to that used in China, India, Japan 
and other Eastern countries. In many parts 
of China it is almost their sole article of food. 
This one fact would show that it must furnish 
very valuable food elements. Though it is 
slightly deficient in muscle-building elements, 
it contains large quantities of starch , and 


hence is valuable for producing energy and 
adding fatty tissues to the body. It may be 
prepared in various ways and is appetizing un- 
der almost any circumstances. It should, how- 
ever, never be cooked until it becomes mushy. 
It is far more easily digested, and furnishes 
far more nourishment when cooked only to that 
point where each grain is separate and distinct. 
As it contains a large quantity of starch, which 
is partly digested in the mouth, the necessity 
for thorough mastication cannot be too strongly 

Barley, rye and buckwheat are all valuable 
foods when they are enjoyed by the appetite. 
Buckwheat cakes can hardly be commended as 
they are, as a rule, hurriedly swallowed and 
prepared by a process which causes them to be 
very difficult to digest. Rye bread, when prop- 
erly made, is nourishing and can be commend- 
ed. It is so much superior to white bread as 
a food that whenever whole wheat bread cannot 
be secured, it should be used in preference to 
white bread. Numerous restaurants who do 


not keep Graham bread have a supply of rye. 
Barley is often used in soups and is nourish- 
ing, and if thoroughly masticated will be found 





Analyses. Water. 

Mineral. (Muscle). 


Fat, etc 

Artichokes ...79.5 





Asparagus . . .94.0 





Beans, butter, 

fresh 58.9 




Beans, Lima, 

fresh 68.5 





Beans, string, 

fresh 89.2 





Beans, dried. .12.6 





Beans, frijoles, 

New Mex. . 7.5 



. . 


Beans, Lima, 

dried 10.4 


18. 1 


Beets 87.5 





Cabbage 91.5 





Carrots 88.2 





Cauliflower . .92.3 





Celery 94.5 



. . 


Collards 87.1 



. . 


Corn 75.4 





Cucumbers . ..95.4 





Eggplant ....92.9 





Greens, dande- 

lion 81.4 



• • 


Greens, turnip 

salad 86.7 



• • 




Analyses. Water. Mineral. 

Kohl-rabi — 91. 1 1.3 

Leeks 91.8 .7 

Lentils 8.4 57 

Lettuce 94.7 .9 

Mushrooms ..88.1 1.2 

Okra 902 .6 

Onions, fresh. 87.6 .6 

New Mex. .87.1 .6 

Parsnips 83.0 1.4 

Peas, dried. .. 9.5 2.9 

" green ..74.6 1.0 

" Cowpeas, 

dried 13.0 3.4 

Peas, Cowpeas, 

green 65.9 1.4 

Potatoes, raw 

or fresh . ..78.3 1.0 
Potatoes, evap- 
orated 7.1 3.1 


Sweet, raw 

or fresh . . .69.0 1.1 

Pumpkins ...93.1 .6 

Radishes 91.8 1.0 

Rhubarb 94.4 .7 

Rutabagas ...88.9 1.1 

Sauerkraut ..88.8 5.2 

fresh 92.3 2.1 

Squash 88.3 .8 


fresh 94-3 -5 

Turnips 89.6 .8 





Fat, etc. 





. . 

















• • 















• • 




18. 1 


• • 
































No matter what diet one may adopt, a cer- 
tain amount of green vegetable food can always 
be used to advantage. Though many of the veg- 
etables are not particularly rich in nourishing 
elements, still they contain waste matter which 
is very valuable in its influence over the ali- 
mentary canal. Such foods act as a scavenger 
throughout the entire digestive tract, and 
many cases of serious illness can be avoided 
by regular use of different vegetables. 

Lettuce <is one of the most valuable nerve 
foods that can be secured. On many occasions 
when I have been all " unstrung " from hard 
training or through other straining work, a 
meal in which lettuce was plentifully supplied, 
has in a short time entirely disposed of the 
trouble. It is a most valuable aid wherever one 
is at all annoyed by insomnia. If the last meal 
consists of as much lettuce as you may desire 
to eat, with whole wheat bread and butter, 
there will be little trouble in wooing the uncon- 
sciousness of slumber. The digestibility of let- 
tuce is influenced very greatly by the dressing 
which you use, and would advise that an equal 


quantity of lemon juice and olive oil be used, 
with salt to taste. This should be stirred with 
a fork for three or four minutes until thor- 
oughly combined. A dressing of this charac- 
ter will be found to be not only wholesome in 
itself, but will make the lettuce very appetiz- 

Onions are recommended by many as of 
especial value as a scavenger for the digestive 
tract, and are unquestionably of value in this 
way. They can be eaten cooked or raw, 
though their value as scavenger is much greater 
if they are eaten raw. 

Cabbage is far more wholesome and easily 
digested when eaten raw than when cooked. 

Celery is considered by many to be especially 
valuable as brain food though there is little 
in the chemical analysis to support such con- 
clusion. There is no doubt, however, that it is 
a food of value if relished. It would be well 
to remember that nearly all vegetables that can 
be relished when eaten raw, have a tonic influ- 
ence upon the stomach and other digestive or- 
gans. They tend to cleanse and purify. 


Potatoes are used now almost everywhere. 
Their nourishing value lies mostly in their 
starchy elements. They furnish energy, but 
are, of course, very deficient in those elements 
for supplying new tissue for brain and muscles. 
Wherever potatoes are daily used as a food, 
meat, beans or some other food element rich 
in nitrogenous substances should be added. 

Sweet potatoes will be found much more rich 
in fattening elements, and are more relished 
by many than the ordinary potato. 

Tomatoes will be found valuable food al- 
though they are usually more appetizing and 
more easily digested when eaten raw than 
when cooked. When eaten in this manner, the 
same dressing previously mentioned for let- 
tuce can be used with them. 

Beans, peas and lentils, as will be noted by 
the analysis, contain a very large percentage of 
muscle-making elements. They furnish those 
elements so necessary in properly nourishing 
the body in almost equal proportion to that fur- 
nished by lean meat, and are considered by 
many to be far superior to animal food for 


building strength. There is no question as to 
their great value in this particular way. If 
one has hard muscular work to do, or is train- 
ing for a high degree of muscular development, 
food of this character is very keenly relished. 
They seem to supply the necessary elements 
that is craved by the organs of assimilation un- 
der these circumstances. One can perform 
hard work with food of this character much 
more satisfactorily than upon a meat diet, 
though as stated before, in another chapter, 
while the stimulative character of meat causes 
it to build, perhaps, more immediate strength 
than food of this character, it will not by any 
means furnish the endurance, the ability to 
continue on and on, to the same extent as does 
these valuable elements. These foods can be 
prepared in whatever manner is considered the 
most appetizing, but they should be eaten very 
slowly. Because of their richness in the ele- 
ments required to nourish the body, very na- 
turally they are more difficult of digestion than 
the ordinary foods, and thorough mastication 
will aid in making this process of digestion 
far m©re easy. 



Analyses. Water. 

Butter n.o 

Buttermilk 91.0 

Cheese, American. . . .31.6 

Cheddar 27.4 

Cheshire ... .37.1 

Cottage 72.0 

Dutch 35.2 

Fromage de 

Brie 60.2 

Full Cream . .34.2 
Limburger . ..42.1 
Neuchatel . . . 50.0 
Pineapple ...23.0 

Milk 45-7 

" Swiss 31.4 

Koumiss 89.3 

Milk, Condensed, 

Sweetened 26.9 

Milk, Unsweetened . .68.2 

" Skimmed 90.5 

" Whole 87.0 

Whey 93.0 

Milk and products derived from it furnish 

a large part of the food used in the civilized 


































































world. As a rule it is a most satisfactory food 
though when one is inclined to be of a bilious 
temperament it cannot be commended. In fact, 
if one uses milk or foods produced from it too 
freely, it will very often cause a bilious condi- 
tion. This result can, however, be obviated if 
milk is boiled before drinking, or if sipped or 
eaten very slowly. Though the boiling of milk 
usually makes it more difficult of digestion, 
it usually becomes a more wholesome drink un- 
der this influence, as the microbes, should there 
be any present, are naturally destroyed by the 
extreme heat. 

If careful attention is given to the necessity 
for masticating milk, just as you would solid 
foods, that is by using it with some food that 
requires a certain amount of mastication, or 
actually retaining it in the mouth a sufficient 
length of time to slightly mix it with saliva, 
but little difficulty will be found in properly 
digesting and assimilating it. Milk should 
never under any circumstances be swallowed 
just as you would water. Of course if the 
stomach is in a thoroughly normal condition it 


will always be digested satisfactorily, but if 
there is the slightest inclination to disease or 
weakness of any kind, there may be difficulty. 

Buttermilk is a superior summer drink as the 
acid which it contains is quite similar in its in- 
fluence to the acid found in fruits. Cream, as 
will be noticed, is very rich in fats, and if one is 
inclined to be thin, and will strengthen his di- 
gestive organs so they can digest such a rich 
food, he can easily gain considerable weight by 
its use. It is, however, mere folly to attempt 
to digest this without preparation as it will 
simply create disturbances if the digestive or- 
gans are unable to assimilate foods of this char- 

Cheese is a very valuable food and is very 
rich in nourishment for the muscles, brain, and 
vital functions of the body. On account of its 
richness it is naturally very difficult to digest, 
though the assimilating organs are usually pre- 
pared to digest it if an actual need exists 
for the elements it contains and if prop- 
erly masticated it will usually be digested with- 
out disturbances of any character. Of course 


those brands of cheese, the flavor of which 
has been produced by age, can hardly be com- 
mended. Cheese to be perfectly wholesome and 
easily digested, should be as fresh as possible. 

Butter is a milk product which is used every- 
where, and is, of course, a valuable energy-pro- 
ducing food. It is usually added to white 
bread, a food which already has an over-supply 
of starch and other fattening elements, and 
under these circumstances it certainly cannot be 
commended. Where the system is in need of 
nourishment of this character, however, and 
it is eaten in a manner which makes it pala- 
table, there is no objection to it. 

Condensed milk is another product which is 
used a great deal, and if properly prepared there 
should be no great objection to it, though, of 
course, it is in no way equal to the fresh prod- 
uct, and should never be used if fresh milk can 
be secured. Much of its nourishing elements 
is naturally destroyed in the condensing proc- 



Analyses. Water. 

Apples 84.6 

Apricots 85.0 

Bananas 75.3 

Blackberries .86.3 

Cherries 80.9 

Currants ....85.0 
Cranberries . .88.9 
Figs, fresh .. .79.1 

Grapes 77.4 

Huckleberries 81.9 

Lemons 89.3 

Muskmelons .89.5 
Nectarines ...82.9 

Oranges 86.9 

Pears 84.4 

Persimmons .66.1 

Pineapple 89.3 

Plums 78.4 

ates 76.8 

Prunes 79.6 


red 85.8 


black 84.1 

Strawberries .90.4 
Watermelons .92.4 
berries . . . .82.4 

Mineral. (Muscle). 


























Fat, etc. 









1 1.8 









Fruits of all kinds form not only a delicious 
addition to our diet, but are valuable in many 
ways. They are naturally deficient in actual 
nourishment, but the water which they contain 
is absolutely pure and is easily assimilated and 
used to advantage by the system. Most fruits 
also have acid properties which are valuable in 
assisting the digestive process. This is espe- 
cially true when there is any inclination to a 
liver trouble or biliousness of any kind. Many 
serious illnesses can be avoided by the judicious 
use of fruits, and unquestionably they are val- 
uable in the cure of various diseases. 

The " grape cure " has become famous 
throughout the world, as diseases of all kinds 
have been cured radically and thoroughly by the 
simple use of grapes as an exclusive diet for a 
considerable length of time. Grapes are very 
rich in starch and sugar, as will be noted, and 
really a valuable food and remarkably easy of 
digestion. When the stomach is so weak as to 
be unable to digest the simplest food elements, 
grapes will in nearly every case be found to di- 
gest without the slightest irritation. Of course 


in eating grapes the most satisfactory method 
is to pick and eat them from the vines. This 
is, of course, difficult for most of my readers, 
but if care is taken to secure them well ripened, 
their effects when eaten at home are nearly 
equal to that secured when picking them from 
the vine. 

The apple is probably the most used of all 
fruits, and their flavor varies very greatly. 
Some have a very sweet flavor and contain little 
acid. Others are well supplied with this acid 
element which is a very valuable tonic to many 
stomachs. Apples are usually better eaten raw, 
and are more easily digested in this condition, 
provided they are thoroughly masticated. Of 
course there are some very delicate stomachs 
which find difficulty in digesting raw apples, 
but where such condition has been produced it 
is usually ample evidence that nourishment of 
this character is not needed by the system, or 
else it is evidence that the digestive organs need 
to be rested by frequent short fasts or a long 

The unfermented juice of the apple makes a 


very valuable drink and can be most highly 
recommended. A bilious condition together 
with numerous other ailments, will in many in- 
stances entirely disappear if one will drink 
all the cider that may be desired. I remem- 
ber quite well an experience in my own life 
where cider proved a very valuable aid in re- 
covering normal weight after a dietetic experi- 
ment which had weakened my digestive organs 
and greatly depreciated my general strength. 

I had been following out an experiment for 
two or three months, and though my knowl- 
edge at that time of diet was rather limited, I 
fully believed that my conclusions were correct, 
and I adhered to my determination to prove 
this with too much zeal. One evening I felt 
very weak and concluded to test my pulse beat 
and was amazed to find that it had decreased to 
thirty-five to the minute. It seemed to me im- 
possible that it could be so low, and I tested it 
several times before being convinced. On the 
realization of my condition, which was em- 
phasized not only by the low pulse beat but by 
its faintness, I concluded to immediately begin 


a normal diet. In my condition at that time 
this was not easily done as my digestion was so 
weakened that it could hardly digest anything 
of importance, and for several days I found 
that my strength and weight had increased but 
little, although the pulse beat had largely im- 
proved. On one occasion, I attempted to eat 
a hearty meal and found that only a few 
morsels could be eaten, and a few moments 
later, on eating some apples rich in acids, I 
noticed their immediate beneficial effect. I con- 
cluded that if some apple cider could be had it 
would probably help me greatly in the work of 
digesting. Some especially pure apple juice 
was immediately procured and almost from 
that date I began to gain weight at the rate of 
almost a pound per day, and six weeks after 
that time I had gained thirty pounds. The gain 
was not caused by the medicinal influence of 
cider. The fact was simply that I needed the 
acids in the fruit juice to assist the digestive 
process. This personal experience will no doubt 
emphasize the importance of the use of apples; 
and whenever convenient and appetizing, they 


should always be made a part of your diet 
They are very valuable as a remedy for consti- 
pation, and in fact nearly all fruits are valuable 
in this respect, though blackberries have been 
considered otherwise by numerous hygienic 

In selection of satisfactory fruits you should 
let your taste largely guide you. The tendency 
in the use of fruits is usually to swallow them 
rather hurriedly as they are easily masticated. 
This tendency should be resisted, and mastica- 
tion continued in every case until the food is 
actually reduced to liquid and swallowing is 




Analyses. Water. Mineral. (Muscle). Fat. 

Chicken 74.8 1.1 21.6 2.5 

Eggs 737 1.0 14.8 10.5 

Frogs' Legs 83.7 1.0 15. 1 .2 

Goose, Young 46.7 .8 16.3 36.2 

Loin of Beef, Lean... 67.0 1.0 19.3 12.7 

" " " Fat ...547 .9 16.8 27.6 

Lamb, Lean 72.3 1.4 23.6 2.y 

Fat 54.6 .9 17.1 27.4 

Mutton, Lean 67.4 1.1 19.1 12.4 

Fat 55-0 0.9 17.0 27.1 

Pork, Lean 60.0 1.3 24.3 14.4 

" Fat 13.8 .2 4.1 81.9 

Turkey 55.5 1.0 20.6 22.9 

Veal, Lean 72.1 1.1 21.2 5.6 

" Medium, Fat... 66.0 1.0 19.0 14.0 

There is unquestionably much to be learned 
as to the proper diet of man. Experiments 
heretofore have been made simply by a few 
individuals here and there. No really concerted 
efforts of importance have been made to deter- 
mine the value of different food elements. 

MEATS. 183 

Though I am inclined to favor a vegetable diet, 
as stated before, it would be difficult for the 
average individual at the present time to en- 
tirely avoid meat, unless he was prepared to se- 
cure a variety of grains, fruits and nuts to fur- 
nish nourishment necessary )for the highest 
degree of physical health. 

Beef is generally considered to be the most 
wholesome meat, though chicken and fowl of 
all kinds can be commended. In the prepara- 
tion of beef, broiling or roasting is usually 
found superior to boiling or frying. When 
meat is boiled a large amount of the nourish- 
ment is very often extracted in the boiling 
process ; and when fried, the lard or butter un- 
questionably makes it much more difficult to 

Pork of any kind can hardly be commended. 
It is a meat that is usually difficult to digest, 
and often contains microbes that are seriously 
inimicable to health. 

Some maintain that ham and bacon, in pass- 
ing through the preservative process, become 
more wholesome as food because the microbes 


have been destroyed in this process. Though 
there may be some truth in the claim, any 
process that tends to preserve meat or food of 
any character from fermentation seriously les- 
sens its value as a food. Not only is it more 
difficult to digest, but those elements that can 
be digested and used by the system, are very 
greatly lessened. Under these circumstances 
it would be advisable to entirely avoid pork of 
any kind whenever any other elements which 
will nourish the bodv can be secured. 

Rabbits and squirrels, and meat foods of this 
character — game — are usually more wholesome 
than beef for the reason that these animals are 
running wild and are in every case in perfect 

Kidneys, hearts and other internal organs 
are not usually considered entirely wholesome 
and should be avoided. 

Veal and all other immature meats cannot 
be commended. 

Of all animal foods eggs are probably the 
best. They seem to furnish all the necessary 

MEATS. 185 

nourishment, being rich in the elements that 
feed the body, and if fresh are not so in- 
clined towards the production 01 impurities as 


Analyses Water. 

Almonds 4.8 

Beechnuts 4.0 


(acorns) 4.1 

Brazil Nuts 5.3 

Butternuts 4.4 


fresh 45.0 


dried 5.9 

Cocoanuts 14.1 

Cocoanut, pre- 
pared 3.5 

Filberts 3.7 

Hickory Nuts. . . 3.7 

Lichi Nuts 17.9 

Peanuts 9.2 

Pecans, polished. 3.0 
ished 2.7 

Pignolias 6.4 

Piniones 3.8 

Pinon 3.4 

Pinus Sabiniana. 5.1 

First Quality 4.2 

Second " ... 4-3 





(Muscle). Fit 

>er. Fat, etc. 


21.0 2.0 

54-9 15-3 



574 13-2 



374 48.0 



66.8 7.0 



61.2 3.5 

































8 5.4 40.3 

















70.5 15.3 













NUTS. 187 

Nitrogenous Starch, 

Analyses. Water. Mineral. (Muscle). Fiber. Fat, etc. 

Walnuts, Cali- 
fornia 2.5 1.7 18.4 1.4 64.4 11.6 

Walnuts, Cali- 
fornia, black. . 2.5 1.9 27.6 1.7 56.3 10.0 

Walnuts, Cali- 
fornia, soft 
shell 2.5 1.4 16.6 2.6 63.4 13.5 

Malted Nuts ... 2.6 2.2 23.7 . . 27.6 43.9 

About the richest food that can be found in 
all the products used by man is unquestionably 
nut meats. It is a general impression that these 
foods are very difficult to digest, and in fact 
the average individual will warn you against 
their use for the reason that they are almost 
sure to cause indigestion. When they are eaten 
as is usual this result occurs in many instances. 
Most any other food element, if eaten in the 
same way, would produce similar results. The 
general opinion is that nuts are a delicacy which 
should not be indulged during a meal, but at 
odd times whenever the appetite may desire 
them. As stated in a previous chapter, this 
habit of " piecing " between meals is productive 
of evil results in every case, and it applies with 


equal if not more force to rich food like that 
furnished by nut meats. 

Nuts should be eaten during the meal just 
the same as any other food, and the necessity 
for thorough mastication cannot be too strong- 
ly emphasized. Every mouthful should be 
chewed until it is an actual liquid, and if this 
is followed in every case, and the nuts are eaten 
as a part of your meal and at the time you are 
usually in the habit of eating, there will be little 
or no difficulty in digesting them. 

The enormous activity manifested by those 
animals that live almost exclusively on nuts is 
ample evidence of their nourishing qualities. 
For instance, take a squirrel which has been 
able to secure an ample store of nuts, you will 
find him usually fat and sleek and capable of ac- 
tivity which hardly a single animal can equal. 
He will jump from tree to tree when the dis- 
tance is as great or greater than the longest leap 
ever made by man. If they are being pursued 
it is not at all infrequent for them to jump from 
the top of a high tree to the ground, light on 
their feet, and run away, apparently not in the 

NUTS. 189 

least affected by leaping from such a great 

I am personally acquainted with a man who 
subsisted for many months exclusively on a 
nut and fruit diet, and he maintained that it 
was satisfactory in every respect. He stated 
that his usual habit was to eat twice a day, and 
the first part of his meal was usually a half- 
pound of shelled pecans or walnuts, after 
which he would eat whatever fruit he might 
desire. He stated that though when beginning 
this diet he was suffering from a complication 
of complaints, that it was continued but a short 
time before all these weaknesses disappeared 

The analyses furnished herewith indicate 
percentage of the various elements which these 
nuts contain. In all analysis previous to this 
I have combined the starch and fats as they 
are practically for similar purposes, though all 
hygienists claim that fat is more easily assim- 
ilated than starch or sugar. Nuts contain such 
a large quantity of pure fat or oil, whichever it 
may be termed, that I have separated it from 


the starch that my readers may see how rich 
nuts are in this particular element. The aver- 
age reader will no doubt be surprised upon pe- 
rusing this list, to note the large quantity of 
muscle-making elements furnished by peanuts. 
They are also very rich in fats and conse- 
quently are a very valuable food to nourish the 
body under conditions of hard mental or phys- 
ical work. 

Of course in selecting nuts for your own par- 
ticular use it is well for you to consult your 
appetite entirely, though if you are aware of 
the different elements of these different nuts, 
and also realizing your particular needs, this 
will unquestionably to a certain extent influ- 
ence your appetite. 



Analyses. Water. 

Alewife 74-4 

Bass 76.7 

Black Fish 79.1 

Bluefish 78-5 

Buffalo Fish 78.6 

Butter Fish 70.0 

Cat Fish 64.1 

Ciscoe 74.0 

Cod 82.6 

Cusk 82.0 

Eels 71.6 

Flounders 84.2 

Haddock 81.7 

Hake 83.1 

Halibut 75-4 

Herring 72.5 

Kingfish 79.2 

Lamphreys 71. 1 

Mackeral 73.4 

Mullet 74.9 

Muskellunge 76.3 

Perch 75.7 

Pickerel 79.8 

Pike 80.8 

Pollock 76.0 

Pomparo 72.8 



























18. 1 










































19. 1 
















Analyses. Water. Mineral. (Muscle). Fat. 

Porgy f . .75.0 1.4 18.5 5-1 

Red Grouper 79.5 1.1 18.8 .6 

Red Snapper 78.5 1.3 19.2 1.0 

Salmon 64.6 1.4 21.2 12.8 

Shad 70.6 1.3 18.6 9.5 

Sheepshead 75.6 1.2 19.5 3.7 

Skate 82.2 .1.1 15.3 1.4 

Smelt 79.2 1.7 17.3 1.8 

Spanish Mackerel.. 68.1 1.5 21.0 9.4 

Sturgeon 78.7 1.4 18.0 1.9 

Tomcod 81.5 1.0 17.1 .4 

Trout 77.8 1.2 18.9 2.1 

Turbot 71.4 1.3 12.9 14.4 

Weakfish 79.0 1.2 17.4 2.4 

W hi tefish 69.8 1 .6 22. 1 6.5 


Clams 85.8 2.6 8.6 3.0 

Crabs 77-1 3-i 16.6 3.2 

Crayfish 81.2 1.3 16.0 1.5 

Lobster 79.2 2.2 16.4 2.2 

Mussels 84.2 1.9 8.7 5.2 

Oysters 86.9 2.0 6.2 4.9 

Scallops 80.3 1.4 14.8 3.5 

Terrapin 74.5 1.0 21.0 3.5 

Turtle 79.8 1.2 18.5 .5 

Fish is generally considered to be a very val- 
uable food for the brain. This is an error. It 
is far less valuable as a brain food than numer- 
ous others. In fact it would be well to remem- 
ber that what is food for the brain is also food 

FISH. 193 

for the muscles ; the same elements which form 
the cells in the muscles also form the cells in 
the brain. The same food elements which fur- 
nish the power for muscular effort also fur- 
nish the power for brain work, therefore any 
food which is rich in the nitrogenous and fat- 
tening elements would naturally be advan- 
tageous as brain food. 

Oysters are probably eaten more than any 
other sea food, and an impression has somehow 
been gained that they are very valuable in 
nourishing the muscular and nervous system. 
You will note in the table that their nourishing 
elements of this character are less than any 
other fish. 

Fish is a food which can be recommended 
very often when meat does not seem to produce 
satisfactory results. Fish, if fresh, seems to be 
more easily digested and less liable to produce 
impurities. This of course does not apply to 
all cases, but it is not by any means so hearty 
a food as beef and its nourishing qualities, in 
many instances, are nearly equal. 


Miscellaneous Food Products. 

Analyses. Water. 

Gelatin 13.6 


Oleomargarine ... 9.5 


Honey 18.2 

Molasses Cane 25.1 

EGGS :— 

Uncooked 73.7 

Boiled, Whole . ...73.2 
Whites . .86.2 
Yolks ...49.5 



L (Muscle). 









• • 


















16. 1 




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health-building and physical development, but 
it is safe to say that no one book covers the 
care of the body more thoroughly. 

This book tells you how to increase the 
vital powers of all the important organs. It 
is plain and concise. If you care not specially 
for muscles, but want to feel at all times 
exhilarated with superabundant health, secure 
this book and follow the plain directions 
contained therein. 

Titles of Chapters. — What is Vital Power? Vital Power 
Depends on Functional Vigor, Pure Blood and Vitality, Organs 
of Digestion, Circulation and Respiration. Building Vital 
Power with Long Walks. Vast Importance of Water. In- 
creasing Digestive and Assimilative Power. How <a Powerful 
Stomach May be Acquired. The Heart made Powerful. De- 
veloping Great Lung Power. Pure Air of Utmost Importance. 
Illustrated Suggestions for Perfect Ventilation, and other 

Bound in cloth, postpaid $1.00. With one year's 
subscription to PHYSICAL CULTURE $1.75 



flow to Develop Muscular Power and Beauty 


This notable work provides the fullest possible description 
of numerous exercises for developing- the muscles of every portion 
of the body. The movements described may be performed without 
the aid of apparatus of any sort, and are fully illustrated. 

One hundred and three full page illustrations from photo- 
graphs of Bernarr Macfadden, made especially for this work. 

The most recent discoveries of the author in regard to ob- 
taining the fullest possible degree of strength, and the most sym- 
metrical outlines for every portion of the body, are clearly 
explained. Book alone sold for $1.00, prepaid. 

Sent free, handsomely bound in cloth, together with ad>l 7C 

year's subscription to PHYSICAL CULTURE, for $1.10 

(Book and magazine sent to different addresses, if desired.) 

Flatiron Building, New York City. 


Written under the editorial supervision of Bernarr Macfadden. 

A complete manual of the human body and its functions, 
thoroughly illustrated. It gives an exact knowledge of the basis 
of physical training, and is of value to physical instructors, students 
{of physical culture, athletes and everybody. Just what Physical 
Culture does for the body, how and why, scientifically explained. 
Why you should do certain things and not do other things. 

Titles of Chapters: Chemical Elements in Body Cells — Their 
Relations to Body; The Skeleton in General; Structures and Uses 
of Each Bone — Group of Bones; Muscles, Voluntary and Involun- 
tary; Muscles of the Neck, Shoulders and Back — Muscles of the 
Chest and Abdomen; The Larger ^nd More Important Muscles of 
the Arm, etc. 

Consists of 236 pages and contains 41 illustrations of parts 
of the human body, bound in cloth, postpaid, $1.00. With <M nc 
one year's subscription to PHYSICAL CULTURE Magazine.. «pi.««J 

Flatiron Building, New York City, 


Contents: Chapter 1 — Health and Hair — Great Influence 
of Condition of Health Upon Hair — Fine Hair Depends Upon 
the Purity of the Blood. Chapter II — Cause of Loss of Hair — 
Either Local or Constitutional — Local when Caused by Dand- 
ruff or a Diseased Condition of the Scalp — Constitutional when 
from Weakness Brought About by Fevers, Dissipation or 
Otherwise — Why Women Have Stronger Hair Than Men — 
Growth of Hair — Remarkable Instances of Long Hair. Chap- 
ter III— Scalp Massage — Accelerate the Circulation of the 
Scalp — How to Massage with the Fingers Described and Illus- 
trated — Massage from the Pulling Process and from Friction 
Secured from Brushes. Twelve other interesting and instruc- 
tive chapters. 

Consists of 140 pages, 14 Mi-page illustrations; bound 
in cloth, postpaid $1.00. With yearly subscription ^ „ 

Flatiron Building, New York. 


Titles of Chapters: Eyes Most Important Human Organs 
of Sense — The Mechanism and Mystery of Sight; The Physical 
Causes of Beautiful Eyes — Elusiveness of Definition; Strong 
Eyes Main Factor in Personal Magnetism — The Limitations 
of the Blind and Weak-sighted; Dull Eyes — The Cause and 
Remedy — How Weak Eyes May be Strengthened — Diseased 
Eyes — How to Treat Them — Inflammation and Its Treatment; 
Constitutional Treatment for Weak Eyes — Out-of-Door Exer- 
cise — Diet; How Eyes Are Improved by Massaging Them — 
How the Eye May Be Massaged with the Fingers; Illustrated 
System for exercising Eyes; How the Valuable Eye Bath is 

Consists of 120 pages, 27 illustrations; bound in cloth, 
postpaid 1.00 8 With yearly subscription to Physical ., «*. 
Cui/ture c $1.75 

Flatiron Building, New York. 



Mr. Treloar was the winner of the $1,000 prize at tjie 
Physical Culture Competition at Madison Square Garden, New 
York, for the most perfectly developed man in the world. The 
book is unquestionably the most complete of its kind pub- 
lished. No expense has been spared by its publishers to 
produce this book in a manner fitting its valuable contents. 

Contents: Ideals in Regard to the Body Beautiful; beauti- 
fully rounded muscles; strength; a fine, erect carriage; ideal 
body should possess grace and quickness equally as well as 
great strength; Anatomy of the Body; Illustrated by more 
than 50 full-page photographs posed by the author and his 
wife, Edna Tempest. 

Consists of more than 200 pages, 71 illustrations, bound in 
cloth, postpaid $1.00. With one year's subscription ^ ,*« 
to the PHYSICAL CULTURE Magazine JM./5 

Flatiron Building, New York. 


How Health and Strength are Gained by These Three 
Great Remedies of Nature. Original System of Exercises 
Illustrated by Photographs and especially devised for treating 
diseased conditions. By BERNARR MACFADDEN and 
FELIX OSWALD, A, M., M. D. Bound in cloth and gold. It 
CURED. It tells you what Health is, how it is acquired, anu 
how to keep it. 

This book is divided into four parts. Part I, devoted to 
Fasting and its values. Part II, five chapters are devoted to 
Hydropathy. Part III, five chapters are devoted to Exercises 
as applied to the treatment of various complaints. Part IV, 
giving detailed instructions for the treatment of all ordinary 
complaints. Price prepaid $1.00.. With one year's sub- ^ 
scription to PHYSICAL CULTURE ?1.75 

Flatiron Building, New York. 



3 9002 01121 9954 

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Accession no. ^n ) 

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